Similipal National Park: A Guide to Odisha’s Crown Jewel



Nestled in the verdant embrace of Odisha’s Mayurbhanj district lies Similipal National Park, a sprawling wonderland of biodiversity and breathtaking landscapes. Encompassing 2,750 square kilometers of pristine wilderness, Similipal is a tiger reserve, an elephant reserve, and a haven for countless flora and fauna, earning it the moniker “The Land of Tigers.”

Location and Significance:

  • Nestled in the heart of Odisha’s Mayurbhanj district, Similipal sprawls across 2,750 sq. km of pristine wilderness.
  • It is a vital ecosystem, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its exceptional biodiversity and cultural heritage.
  • The park plays a crucial role in conservation efforts, serving as both a wildlife sanctuary and a tiger reserve, protecting endangered species like the Royal Bengal tiger.

UNESCO World Heritage Site:

  • Similipal’s rich tapestry of biodiversity and cultural significance earned it recognition as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2009.
  • The park boasts a unique blend of flora and fauna, including rare and endangered species, making it a global treasure worth preserving.

Wildlife Sanctuary and Tiger Reserve:

  • Established in 1979, Similipal is a vital sanctuary for diverse wildlife, including majestic elephants, elusive tigers, and shy sloth bears.
  • As a designated tiger reserve, the park plays a crucial role in the conservation of the endangered Royal Bengal tiger, with an estimated population of around 60 individuals.


Similipal National Park pulsates with a vibrant symphony of life, a tapestry woven from countless threads of flora and fauna. Stepping into this realm is like entering an Edenic paradise, where ancient trees whisper secrets to the wind and shy creatures flit through the emerald shadows.

1. A Treasure Trove of Species:

  • Flora: Over 1,200 plant species call Similipal home, creating a breathtaking mosaic of landscapes. Towering sal forests, their leaves shimmering like polished emeralds in the sunlight, dominate the terrain. Bamboo groves rustle in the breeze, while vibrant grasslands offer a haven for grazing herbivores. (Image of Sal forest in Similipal National Park)
  • Fauna: Similipal is a haven for over 230 bird species, their songs filling the air with a melody of chirps and calls. The majestic Royal Bengal tiger, with its stripes like liquid gold, stalks through the undergrowth, while shy sloth bears lumber through the forests, their shaggy coats offering them camouflage. (Image of Royal Bengal tiger in Similipal National Park)
Flora and Fauna of Similipal Biosphere Reserve 
Flora Fauna 
Eucalyptus Asian Elephant 
Eria meghasaniensis (Orchid Species)Sambar Deer
Tainia hookeriana (Orchid Species)Royal Bengal Tiger 
Sal Barking Deer 
Khair Wild Boar
Sisoo Gaur 
Chir Pine Jungle Cat 
Male Bamboo Common Langur
Silver Oak Chausingha 
Teak Peafowl 
Jacaranda Red Junglefowl
Maror Phali Hill Mynah 
Jhau Grey Hornbill 
Madaar Malabar Pied Hornbill
Amaltas Indian Pied Hornbill 
Semal Mugger Crocodile 

2. Guardians of the Wild:

Similipal is a sanctuary for several endangered species, including the majestic Asian elephant, with its wise eyes and wrinkled skin. Gaur, the largest wild bovine in the world, roam the grasslands, while the elusive chital, their dappled coats blending with the sunlight, add a touch of grace to the landscape. (Image of Asian elephant in Similipal National Park)

3. A Canvas of Diverse Habitats:

Similipal’s magic lies in its breathtaking diversity of habitats. Lush sal forests provide a cool respite from the sun, while open grasslands offer stunning vistas of the rolling hills. Cascading waterfalls, like Barehipani with its three tiers of cascading water, add a touch of drama to the landscape. (Image of Barehipani Falls in Similipal National Park)

Serene lakes, like Joranda with its emerald waters reflecting the surrounding forests, offer moments of tranquility. Each habitat plays a vital role in supporting the park’s incredible biodiversity, creating a harmonious ecosystem where life thrives in all its forms.

Cultural Heritage:

Beyond the symphony of life in its flora and fauna, Similipal National Park holds another layer of richness: the vibrant tapestry of its tribal communities. For centuries, the Onge, Mankiridia, and Khadia have called these verdant depths home, weaving their lives into the very fabric of the forest.

1. Guardians of Tradition:

  • These communities, deeply connected to the land, have developed intricate traditional practices and beliefs that exist in harmony with nature. They understand the rhythms of the forest, respecting its bounty and living in sustainable balance with its resources.
  • Their ancestral knowledge, passed down through generations, guides their hunting, gathering, and farming practices. They believe in the spirits of the forest, honoring them through rituals and offerings, ensuring a reciprocal relationship with their environment.

2. A Legacy of Harmony:

  • The Onge, known for their nomadic lifestyle, once thrived in the core area of the park before being relocated. Their intricate basket weaving and unique cultural practices continue to inspire.
  • The Mankiridia, skilled hunters and gatherers, navigate the dense forests with ease. Their traditional medicine practices, utilizing the forest’s natural resources, offer valuable insights into sustainable living.
  • The Khadia, adept farmers and artisans, cultivate crops and craft intricate bamboo products. Their vibrant festivals and rituals celebrate the bounty of the forest, connecting them to their ancestral roots.

3. A Bridge Between Worlds:

The cultural heritage of Similipal’s tribal communities is not merely a relic of the past. It offers valuable lessons for sustainable living and a reminder of our interconnectedness with nature. Engaging with these communities, respecting their traditions, and learning from their wisdom can bridge the gap between modern society and the natural world.

This revised section on Similipal’s cultural heritage highlights the unique practices and beliefs of the Onge, Mankiridia, and Khadia communities, emphasizing their harmonious relationship with the forest. It also underscores the importance of cultural preservation and the lessons we can learn from these communities’ sustainable practices.

Things to Do:

Similipal National Park is not just a sanctuary for wildlife; it’s a playground for the adventurous spirit. Whether you seek adrenaline-pumping wildlife encounters, serene reflections by tranquil waters, or immersive cultural experiences, Similipal has something for you.

1. Trekking Through Verdant Realms:

  • Lace up your boots and embark on guided treks through diverse landscapes. From the dappled sunlight filtering through towering sal forests to the wind whispering through bamboo groves, each step is a sensory feast. (Image of Trekking through Similipal National Park)
  • Trek to the awe-inspiring Barehipani Falls, its three tiers cascading down into a refreshing pool, or challenge yourself on the steeper climb to the panoramic vistas of Meghasani Peak.

2. Thrill of the Wild: Wildlife Safaris:

  • Embark on an unforgettable wildlife safari and witness the park’s majestic creatures in their natural habitat. Jeep safaris offer glimpses of herds of grazing gaur, while elephant rides provide a unique perspective on the forest floor, potentially spotting elusive sloth bears or shy chital deer. (Image of Wildlife safari in Similipal National Park)
  • Keep your eyes peeled for the elusive Royal Bengal tiger, the apex predator of Similipal. Spotting its striped glory amidst the foliage is an experience that will stay etched in your memory forever.

3. Tranquility by Serene Waters:

  • Seek solace amidst the emerald embrace of Similipal’s lakes. Paddle across the glassy surface of Joranda Lake, surrounded by lush greenery and the calls of exotic birds. (Image of Joranda Lake in Similipal National Park)
  • Unwind by the cascading beauty of waterfalls like Barehipani or Rukuda, feeling the cool mist on your face and the rhythm of the water washing away your worries.

4. A Meeting of Cultures:

  • Immerse yourself in the rich tapestry of tribal cultures that have thrived in Similipal for centuries. Visit local villages and witness the Onge’s intricate basket weaving or learn about the Mankiridia’s traditional hunting and gathering practices. (Image of Onge tribe in Similipal National Park)
  • Participate in vibrant Khadia festivals and witness their skilled bamboo crafts, gaining insights into their harmonious relationship with the forest.

Remember: Always respect the park’s rules and local customs during your cultural encounters.

Similipal offers a kaleidoscope of experiences, waiting to be unveiled. So, pack your sense of adventure, grab your camera, and get ready to create memories that will last a lifetime in this enchanting wilderness.

Planning Your Visit:

Similipal beckons the explorer, but before you plunge into its verdant depths, a touch of preparation will ensure a smooth and unforgettable journey.

Timing Your Wilderness Odyssey:

  • October to February: Embrace the crisp air and vibrant wildlife sightings during the ideal months to visit. Days are pleasant, nights are cool, and the chances of encountering tigers and other creatures are at their peak.
  • March to September: While the monsoon paints the landscape green, some areas remain inaccessible, and wildlife sightings may be limited. Consider alternative destinations during this period.

Finding Your Forest Refuge:

  • Forest Lodges: Choose comfort in charming forest lodges like Barehipani, Chamara, or Joranda. Enjoy comfortable rooms, delicious local cuisine, and guided activities arranged by the staff. (Image of Barehipani forest lodge in Similipal National Park)
  • Tent Camps: Embark on a rustic adventure in tent camps like Debrigarh or Simlipal. Immerse yourself in the raw beauty of the forest, waking to the chorus of birds and falling asleep under a canopy of stars. (Image of Debrigarh tent camp in Similipal National Park)

Securing Your Passage:

  • Permits: Book your entry permits well in advance, especially during peak season. They can be obtained online or at park offices.
  • Transportation: Arrange your vehicle or elephant ride with authorized operators within the park. Public transport options are limited, so planning ahead is crucial.

Additional Tips:

  • Pack sturdy shoes, breathable clothing, and insect repellent.
  • Respect the park’s rules and regulations for a safe and sustainable experience.
  • Minimize your environmental impact by avoiding littering and using eco-friendly products.
  • Support local communities by purchasing handicrafts and crafts.

Planning your Similipal visit unlocks the key to unforgettable memories. So, research options, pack your essentials, and prepare to encounter the magic that awaits in the heart of Odisha’s wilderness.

Conservation and Sustainability:

Similipal’s breathtaking tapestry of biodiversity is an irreplaceable treasure, not just for Odisha but for the entire planet. Yet, this wilderness faces constant threats, making ecological protection vital for its survival.

1. A Bastion of Biodiversity:

  • Similipal’s diverse habitats nurture endangered species like the Royal Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, and gaur. It serves as a critical breeding ground and migration corridor, protecting the delicate balance of this ecosystem. (Image of Royal Bengal tiger in Similipal National Park)
  • Beyond majestic mammals, countless plant and bird species find refuge within its borders, contributing to the intricate web of life that thrives in this unique environment.

2. Threats to Paradise:

  • Poaching, habitat loss, and unsustainable resource use are constant threats to Similipal’s delicate balance. Climate change poses additional challenges, altering weather patterns and affecting wildlife migration routes.
  • Protecting this natural treasure requires a multi-pronged approach, involving stringent law enforcement, community engagement, and sustainable tourism practices.

3. Responsible Tourism – Walking Hand in Hand with Nature:

  • Minimize your environmental footprint: Opt for eco-friendly lodges, choose responsible transportation options, and avoid littering or disturbing wildlife.
  • Support local communities: Purchase local handicrafts and crafts, engage in respectful cultural exchanges, and contribute to initiatives that empower local communities to become stewards of their environment.
  • Spread awareness: Share your Similipal experience with others, highlighting the importance of conservation and inspiring responsible travel practices.

4. Joining Hands for Conservation:

  • Several organizations work tirelessly to protect Similipal, including the Wildlife Institute of India and the Similipal Forest & Tiger Reserve. Consider volunteering your time or donating to support their efforts.
  • Advocacy and policy changes play a crucial role in ensuring long-term sustainability. Stay informed about conservation issues and raise your voice to support policies that protect Similipal and other threatened ecosystems.
  • Remember: Every action, however small, can make a difference. By choosing responsible tourism, engaging with local communities, and supporting conservation efforts, you can be a champion for Similipal’s future.

Together, we can ensure that this emerald jewel continues to shine brightly for generations to come.


Similipal National Park transcends the ordinary; it’s a tapestry woven from emerald forests, cascading waterfalls, and the symphony of life itself. It’s a haven for majestic creatures, a sanctuary for ancient traditions, and a testament to the resilience of nature. Yet, this precious jewel faces an uncertain future, whispering a call to action that echoes through every rustling leaf and every tiger’s roar.

Protecting Similipal isn’t just a choice; it’s a responsibility. We, the inheritors of this natural legacy, must become its guardians. Let us pledge to:

  • Walk softly on this sacred ground. Minimize our impact, embrace responsible tourism, and choose practices that leave no trace but wonder.
  • Become stewards of Similipal’s soul. Support conservation initiatives, empower local communities, and raise our voices for policies that safeguard this wilderness.
  • Carry the torch of awareness. Share the magic of Similipal with others, inspire them to join the fight for its protection, and ensure its future shines brightly for generations to come.

Similipal beckons to us, not just as an escape, but as a mirror reflecting our connection to the natural world. Let us see its beauty not as a fleeting spectacle, but as a responsibility. Let our every action ripple outwards, forming a tide of protection that washes away threats and nurtures its fragile balance.

In the quiet whispers of the forest, in the gaze of a watchful tiger, Similipal speaks to us. It asks us to remember the earth’s song, to honor its wild symphony, and to ensure its melody lingers for eternity. The choice is ours. Will we answer the call, become champions of this verdant wonder, and leave behind a legacy of wilderness for the generations to come?

The story of Similipal, its magic, its survival, awaits its final chapter. Let us write it together, with ink stained not with indifference, but with the vibrant hues of responsibility, respect, and unwavering love for this irreplaceable jewel of Odisha, of India, of our planet.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Share post: