Exploring the Rich Biodiversity and Conservation Efforts of Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary

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Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary

Nestled amidst the verdant landscapes of eastern Odisha, India, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a testament to nature’s enduring power and its remarkable ability to sculpt the land. Carved by the mighty Mahanadi River over millennia, the sanctuary boasts a mesmerizing 22-kilometer stretch of the river, meandering through the rugged terrain of the Eastern Ghats mountains.

The sanctuary’s history is deeply intertwined with its commitment to wildlife conservation. In 2007, Satkosia Gorge was designated as a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger, recognizing its significance as a crucial habitat for the endangered Bengal tiger. This designation solidified the sanctuary’s status as a haven for diverse wildlife, providing protection and fostering a thriving ecosystem.

In 2021, Satkosia Gorge received the prestigious Ramsar Site designation, a testament to its international importance as a wetland habitat. This recognition highlights the sanctuary’s vital role in supporting a myriad of wetland-dependent species and contributing to the delicate balance of the region’s ecosystem.

The sanctuary’s location within Angul and Boudh districts of Odisha adds to its geographical significance. Situated at the convergence of the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats, Satkosia Gorge boasts a diverse topography, with towering cliffs, verdant forests, and meandering rivers. This unique landscape provides a haven for a wide array of flora and fauna, making it a treasure trove of biodiversity.

Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a beacon of conservation efforts, a sanctuary where the wild thrives, and a natural wonder that leaves visitors in awe of its beauty. Its rich history, geographical significance, and ecological importance make it a place of immense value, deserving of continued protection and appreciation for generations to come.

A Crossroads of Geological Formations

Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary’s geographical significance is deeply rooted in its strategic location at the convergence of two major geological formations: the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats. This unique positioning has resulted in a diverse and awe-inspiring topography that sets the stage for a thriving ecosystem.

The sanctuary’s 22-kilometer stretch of the Mahanadi River, carved through the heart of the Eastern Ghats mountains, is a testament to the relentless forces of nature. The river’s meandering path has shaped the landscape into a tapestry of towering cliffs, verdant forests, and serene stretches of water. These varied habitats provide a haven for a multitude of flora and fauna, creating a rich biodiversity hotspot.

The sanctuary’s location within the Eastern Ghats, a mountain range stretching along the eastern coast of India, adds to its geographical significance. The Eastern Ghats play a crucial role in shaping the region’s climate, influencing rainfall patterns and fostering unique ecological conditions. Satkosia Gorge, nestled within this mountain range, benefits from this interplay of climate and topography, creating a microcosm of diverse ecosystems.

The sanctuary’s proximity to the Deccan Peninsula, a vast plateau covering much of southern India, adds another layer of geographical significance. The Deccan Peninsula’s unique geological history and distinct flora and fauna contribute to the overall biodiversity of the region. Satkosia Gorge, situated at the edge of this peninsular terrain, acts as a transitional zone, showcasing a blend of ecological elements from both the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats.

In essence, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary’s location and geographical significance lie in its position at the crossroads of two major geological formations, creating a unique blend of topography, climate, and biodiversity. This positioning has resulted in a natural wonder that not only enchants visitors with its beauty but also plays a vital role in maintaining the ecological balance of the region.

Geological Features: A Testament to Earth’s History

Satkosia Gorge, a mesmerizing natural wonder carved by the mighty Mahanadi River, stands as a geological masterpiece, showcasing a captivating blend of landscapes and rock formations. Its geological features provide valuable insights into the region’s tectonic history and the processes that have shaped the landscape over millions of years.

Formation and Evolution of the Gorge: A River’s Masterful Carving

The formation of Satkosia Gorge is a testament to the relentless power of the Mahanadi River, which has tirelessly sculpted the landscape over millennia. The river’s flow, combined with the erosional processes of weathering and abrasion, has carved a deep chasm through the ancient rocks, creating the spectacular gorge that we see today.

The gorge’s formation can be attributed to a combination of factors, including:

  • Uplift of the Eastern Ghats: The uplift of the Eastern Ghats, a mountain range running parallel to the coast of India, provided the resistant rocks that the Mahanadi River had to carve through.
  • Meandering river course: The meandering nature of the Mahanadi River allowed it to erode its path more effectively, creating the deep and sinuous gorge.
  • Varied rock formations: The presence of different rock types, each with varying resistance to erosion, has contributed to the gorge’s unique topography and diverse landscapes.

Geological Composition and Rock Formations: A Tapestry of Geological Treasures

Satkosia Gorge’s geological composition is a fascinating blend of rocks, each with its own story to tell. The dominant rock types found in the gorge include granite, gneiss, and quartzite.

  • Granite: Granite, an igneous rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma deep within the Earth’s crust, provides the foundation for the gorge’s towering cliffs and rugged terrain. Its hardness and resistance to erosion have made it a crucial component of the gorge’s structure.
  • Gneiss: Gneiss, a metamorphic rock formed from the transformation of other rock types under intense heat and pressure, adds to the gorge’s structural complexity. Its layered and contorted appearance reflects the immense forces that have shaped this geological wonder.
  • Quartzite: Quartzite, a hard, metamorphic rock formed from sandstone under high temperatures and pressures, contributes to the gorge’s resilience and stability. Its resistance to erosion has helped preserve the gorge’s features over millennia.

Significance of Geological Features: A Window into the Past

The geological features of Satkosia Gorge are not merely scenic wonders; they hold immense scientific significance. The gorge serves as a natural laboratory for geologists and earth scientists, providing valuable insights into the region’s tectonic history and the processes that have shaped the landscape.

  • Understanding tectonic movements: The gorge’s formation and the presence of different rock types provide clues about the tectonic movements that have occurred in the region over millions of years.
  • Studying geological processes: The gorge’s varied rock formations and erosional features offer opportunities to study geological processes, such as weathering, abrasion, and uplift.
  • Preserving geological heritage: The gorge’s geological features represent a valuable piece of the region’s natural heritage, showcasing the enduring power of nature’s sculpting abilities.

Diverse Rock Formations: A Mosaic of Geological Wonders

Beyond the dominant rock types, Satkosia Gorge boasts a diverse array of rock formations, adding to its geological richness. These include:

  • Charnockite: Charnockite, a type of granite characterized by green feldspar, adds a unique color palette to the gorge’s landscape.
  • Pegmatite: Pegmatite, a coarse-grained igneous rock, occurs in veins and dikes, providing a contrast to the surrounding rocks.
  • Laterite: Laterite, a reddish-brown rock formed from weathering under tropical conditions, is found in some parts of the gorge, indicating past climatic conditions.

These diverse rock formations, each with its distinct characteristics and geological history, contribute to the gorge’s captivating geological tapestry.

In essence, Satkosia Gorge stands as a geological masterpiece, a testament to the relentless forces of nature and the enduring processes that have shaped the Earth’s surface. Its geological features, from the towering cliffs of granite to the intricate layers of gneiss, provide valuable insights into the region’s tectonic history and the power of nature’s sculpting abilities. As we admire the gorge’s breathtaking beauty, we are simultaneously witnessing a living laboratory of geological wonders.

Ecological Diversity: A Haven of Thriving Flora and Fauna

Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a haven for a diverse array of flora and fauna, a testament to the region’s rich ecological heritage. The sanctuary’s varied habitats, ranging from tropical evergreen forests to open grasslands and rocky outcrops, provide a nurturing environment for a multitude of plant and animal species.

Diverse Habitats: A Tapestry of Ecosystems

Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary encompasses a mosaic of diverse habitats, each playing a crucial role in supporting the sanctuary’s rich biodiversity. These habitats include:

  • Tropical Evergreen Forests: These lush, verdant forests dominate the sanctuary’s landscape, providing a haven for a wide variety of tree species. Towering trees like Asan, Dhaura, Simili, and Indian thorny bamboo form a dense canopy, sheltering a myriad of plants and animals.
  • Open Grasslands: Interspersed within the forests are patches of open grasslands, providing a habitat for a different set of species. These grasslands are crucial grazing grounds for herbivores and offer nesting sites for various bird species.
  • Rocky Outcrops: The sanctuary’s rugged terrain is punctuated by rocky outcrops, providing unique microhabitats for a variety of reptiles, amphibians, and small mammals. These rocky formations add to the sanctuary’s visual appeal and ecological diversity.

Flora: A Foundation for Life

The sanctuary’s flora plays a vital role in maintaining the delicate balance of the ecosystem. The dominant plant species, such as Asan, Dhaura, Simili, and Indian thorny bamboo, provide food and shelter for a wide range of wildlife. These trees produce fruits, seeds, and leaves that nourish herbivores, while their dense foliage creates nesting sites and hiding places for birds and other animals.

The sanctuary’s flora also plays a crucial role in soil conservation, preventing erosion and maintaining the stability of the landscape. The roots of trees and shrubs bind the soil together, while their leaves and branches form a protective layer that reduces the impact of rainfall and wind.

Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary boasts an impressive array of flora, encompassing over 126 tree species, 98 shrubs, 125 herbs, and 561 climber species.

Trees:

  • Sal (Shorea robusta): The most dominant tree species in the sanctuary, sal trees are found in dense forests. They are an important source of timber and fuelwood.
  • Teak (Tectona grandis): Another important tree species, teak trees are also found in dense forests. They are a valuable timber species that is used to make furniture and other wood products.
  • Bamboo (Bambusa spp.): Bamboo is a fast-growing grass that is found in a variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands. It is an important source of food and shelter for wildlife.
  • Karada (Pterocarpus marsupium): Karada trees are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas. They are a valuable timber species that is used to make furniture and other wood products.
  • Dhawra (Cassia fistula): Dhaura trees are found in the sanctuary’s open grasslands. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
  • Piasal (Pterocarpus indicus): Piasal trees are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas. They are a valuable timber species that is used to make furniture and other wood products.

Shrubs:

  • Asan (Terminalia arjuna): Asan trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their medicinal properties.
  • Amla (Emblica officinalis): Amla trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of vitamin C.
  • Bela (Aegle marmelos): Bela trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their medicinal properties.
  • Dhaura (Cassia fistula): Dhaura trees are found in the sanctuary’s open grasslands. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
  • Jamu (Syzygium cumini): Jamu trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of vitamin C.
  • Kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba): Kadamba trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their beautiful flowers.
  • Kanchan (Cassia fistula): Kanchan trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
  • Kangara (Terminalia arjuna): Kangara trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their medicinal properties.
  • Kasi (Acacia catechu): Kasi trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of tannin.
  • Kendu (Diospyros melanoxylon): Kendu trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of paper pulp.
  • Kurum (Cassia fistula): Kurum trees are found in the sanctuary’s open grasslands. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
  • Kusum (Butea monosperma): Kusum trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their bright orange flowers.
  • Mahul (Madhuca longifolia): Mahul trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of fodder and fuelwood.
  • Mango (Mangifera indica): Mango trees are found in the sanctuary’s plantations. They are a valuable source of fruit.
  • Mundi (Acacia catechu): Mundi trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of tannin.
  • Phasi (Cassia fistula): Phasi trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
  • Sidha (Terminalia arjuna): Sidha trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their medicinal properties.
  • Simul (Bombax ceiba): Simul trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their beautiful flowers.

The presence of these diverse flora species in Satkosia Wildlife Sanctuary is a testament to the sanctuary’s rich biodiversity and its importance in conserving India’s natural heritage.

Fauna: A Symphony of Life

Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary is a haven for a diverse array of fauna, from majestic mammals to vibrant birds and reptiles. The sanctuary’s varied habitats provide suitable niches for a wide range of species, contributing to its reputation as an important wildlife conservation area.

Mammals: The sanctuary is home to a remarkable range of mammals, including tigers, elephants, leopards, sambar, wild boar, and gaur. Tigers, the apex predators, roam the dense forests, while elephants traverse the grasslands and rocky terrain. Leopards, known for their agility and stealth, stalk their prey in the forest undergrowth. Sambar, wild boar, and gaur are among the herbivores that graze in the grasslands and open areas.

List of mammals – Satkosia Wildlife Sanctuary is a haven for a diverse array of wildlife, including both carnivorous and herbivorous species. The sanctuary’s varied habitats, ranging from tropical evergreen forests to open grasslands and rocky outcrops, provide suitable niches for a wide range of animals.

Carnivores:

  • Tiger: The apex predator of the sanctuary, tigers roam the dense forests, preying on a variety of large mammals.
  • Leopard: Known for their agility and stealth, leopards stalk their prey in the forest undergrowth.
  • Jungle cat: Smaller than tigers and leopards, jungle cats are found in a variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and rocky areas.
  • Civet: These nocturnal mammals are omnivorous, feeding on both fruits and small animals.
  • Small Indian mongoose: A common mongoose species, small Indian mongooses play an important role in controlling rodent populations.
  • Wolf: Wolves are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas, hunting in packs and preying on medium-sized mammals.
  • Jackal: Jackals are smaller than wolves and are often seen scavengering on carcasses left by larger predators.
  • Striped hyena: Striped hyenas are nocturnal scavengers, feeding on a variety of dead animals.
  • Wild dog: Wild dogs, also known as dholes, are social hunters, working together to chase down and capture prey.

Herbivores:

  • Elephant: The largest land animal in Asia, elephants are found in herds, traversing the grasslands and rocky terrain of the sanctuary.
  • Common langur: These arboreal primates are found in the sanctuary’s forests, feeding on fruits, leaves, and flowers.
  • Sloth bear: Sloth bears are omnivorous, feeding on fruits, insects, and small mammals. They are known for their long, shaggy fur and their habit of sleeping in trees.
  • Sambar: The largest deer species in India, sambar are found in the sanctuary’s dense forests.
  • Chital: Spotted deer, also known as chital, are found in the sanctuary’s grasslands and open areas.
  • Chausingha: Four-horned antelope, also known as chausingha, are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas.
  • Mouse deer: The smallest deer species in India, mouse deer are found in a variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and rocky areas.
  • Barking deer: Barking deer are known for their distinctive barking call, which they use to communicate with each other.
  • Wild pig: Wild pigs are found in the sanctuary’s forests and grasslands, foraging for roots, fruits, and insects.
  • Gaur (Gayal): Also known as gaurs, gayals are the largest bovine species in Asia. They are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas, grazing on grasses and leaves.
  • Rodents: A variety of rodents are found in the sanctuary, including Malabar giant squirrels, five-striped palm squirrels, common hares, and porcupines.

The presence of these diverse carnivores and herbivores in Satkosia Wildlife Sanctuary is a testament to the sanctuary’s rich biodiversity and its importance in conserving India’s natural heritage.

Birds: The sanctuary’s avifauna is equally impressive, with over 350 species recorded. The sanctuary’s varied habitats provide suitable breeding and feeding grounds for a wide range of birds, from raptors and waterbirds to songbirds and forest dwellers.

LIST OF DIFFERENT BIRDS
Sl NoCommon NameScientific Name
1Painted FrancolinFrancolinus pictus
2Grey FrancolinFrancolinus pondiceranius
3Common QuailCoturnix coturnix
4Rain QuailCoturnix coromandelica
5King QuailCoturnix chinensis
6Jungle Bush QuailPerdicula asiatica
7Painted Bush QuailPerdicula erythrorhynca
8Red SpurfowlGalloperdix spadicea
9Painted SpurfowlGalloperdix lunulata
10Red JunglefowlGallus gallus
11Indian PeafowlPavo cristatus
12Lesser Whistling DuckDendrocygna javanica
13Fulvous Whistling DuckDendrocygna bicolor
14Bar headed GooseAnser Indicus
15Ruddy ShelduckTadorna ferruginea
16Cotton Pygmy GooseNettapus Coromandelianus
17GadwallAnas strepera
18Falcated DuckAnas falcata
19Eurasian WigeonAnas penelope
20Spotbilled DuckAnas poecilorhyncha
21Northern ShovelerAnas Clypeata
22Northern PintailAnas acuta
23GarganeyAnas querquedula
24Common TealAnas crecca
25Red crested PochardNetta rufina
26Common PochardAythya ferina
27Ferruginous DuckAythya nyroca
28Tufted DuckAythya fuligula
29Little GrebeTachybaptus ruficollis
30Great crested GrebePodiceps cristatus
31Painted StorkMycteria leucocephala
32Asian OpenbillAnastomus oscitans
33Black StorkCiconia nigra
34Woolly necked StorkCiconia episcopus
35Black IbisPseudibis papillosa
36Black headed IbisThreskiornis melanocephalus
37Striated HeronButorides striata
38Black crowned Night HeronNycticorax nycticorax
39Indian Pond HeronArdeola grayii
40Grey HeronArdea cinerea
41Purple HeronArdea purpurea
42Cattle EgretBubulcus ibis
43Great EgretCasmerodius albus
44Intermediate EgretMesophoyx intermedia
45Little EgretEgretta garzetta
46DarterAnhinga melanogaster
47Little CormorantPhalacrocorax niger
48Indian CormorantPhalacrocorax fuscicollis
49Great CormorantPhalacrocorax carbo
50Common KestrelFalco tinnunculus
51Red necked FalconFalco chicquera
52Peregrine FalconFalco peregrinus
53Jerdon’s BazaAviceda jerdoni
54Black winged KiteElanus caeruleus
55Black KiteMilvus migrans
56Black eared KiteMilvus lineatus
57Brahminy KiteHaliastur indus
58OspreyPandion haliaetus
59Pallas fish EagleHaliaeetus leucoryphus
60Black EagleIctinaetus malayensis
61Oriental Honey BuzzardPernis ptilorhyncus
62Egyptian VultureNeophron percnopterus
63Indian VultureGyps indicus
64Short toed Snake EagleCircaetus gallicus
65Crested Serpent EagleSpilornis cheela
66Eurasian Marsh HarrierCircus aeruginosus
67Pied HarrierCircus melanoleucos
68Pallid HarrierCircus macrourus
69Crested GoshawkAccipiter trivirgatus
70ShikraAccipiter badius
71BesraAccipiter virgatus
72Eurasian SparrowhawkAccipter nisus
73White eyed BuzzardButastur teesa
74Greater Spotted EagleAquila clanga
75Indian Spotted EagleAquila hastata
76Steppe EagleAquila nipalensis
77Bonelli’s EagleAquila fasciata
78Booted EagleHieraaetus pennatus
79Rufous bellied EagleLophotriorchis kienerii
80Changeable Hawk EagleSpizaetus cirrhatus
81Small ButtonquailTurnix sylvaticus
82Yellow legged ButtonquailTurnix tanki
83Barred ButtonquailTurnix suscitator
84White breasted WaterhenAmaurornis phoenicurus
85Brown CrakeAmaurornis akool
86Purple SwamphenPorphyrio porphyrio
87Common MoorhenGallinula chloropus
88Eurasian CootFulica atra
89Indian Thick kneeBurhinus oedicnemus
90Great Thick kneeEsacus recurvirostris
91Pheasant tailed JacanaHydrophasianus chirurgus
92Bronze winged JacanaMetopidius indicus
93Black winged StiltHimantopus himantopus
94River LapwingVanellus duvaucelli
95Yellow wattled LapwingVanellus malabaricus
96Red wattled LapwingVanellus indicus
97Pacific Golden PloverPluvialis fulva
98Little ringed PloverCharadrius dubius
99Kentish PloverCharadrius alexandrinus
100Lesser Sand PloverCharadrius mongolus
101Greater painted SnipeRostratula bengalensis 
102Pin tailed SnipeGallinago stenura
103Common SnipeGallinago gallinago
104Common RedshankTringa totanus
105Commmon GreenshankTringa nebularia
106Spotted RedshankTringa erythropus
107Green SandpiperTringa ochropus
108Wood SandpiperTringa glareola
109Common SandpiperActitis hypoleucos
110Marsh SandpiperTringa stagnatilis
111Little StintCalidris minuta
112Temminck’s StintCalidris temminckii
113Small PratincoleGlareola lactea
114Collared PratincoleGlareola pratincola
115Oriental PratincoleGlareola maldivarum
116Brown headed GullLarus brunnicephalus
117Black headed GullChroicocephalus ridibundus
118River TernSterna aurantica
119Black bellied TernSterna acuticauda
120Whiskered TernChlidonias hybrida
121Little TernSternula albifrons
122Indian SkimmerRynchops albicollis
123Common PigeonColumba livia
124Green Imperial PigeonDucula aenea
125Oriental Turtle DoveStreptopelia orientalis
126Eurasian Collared DoveStreptopelia decaocto
127Red Collared DoveStreptopelia tranquebarica
128Spotted DoveStreptopelia chinensis
129Laughing DoveStreptopelia senegalensis
130Orange breasted Green PigeonTreron bicincta
131Pale capped PigeonColumba punicea
132Thick billed Green PigeonTreron curvirostra
133Yellow footed Green PigeonTreron phoenicoptera
134Emerald DoveChalcophaps indica
135Vernal hanging ParrotLoriculus vernalis
136Alexandrine ParakeetPsittacula eupatria
137Rose ringed ParakeetPsittacula krameri
138Plum headed ParakeetPsittacula cyanocephala
139Jacobin CuckooClamator jacobinus
140Common Hawk CuckooHierococcyx varius
141Indian CuckooCuculus micropterus
142Eurasian CuckooCuculus canorus
143Banded bay CuckooCacomantis sonneratii
144Grey bellied CuckooCacomantis passerinus
145Plaintive CuckooCacomantis merulinius
146Asian KoelEudynamys scolopacea
147Green billed MalkohaPhaenicophaeus tristis
148Blue faced MalkohaPhaenicophaeus viridirostris
149Sirkeer MalkohaPhaenicophaeus leshcenaultii
150Greater CoucalCentropus sinensis
151Lesser CoucalCentropus bengalnesis
152Barn OwlTyto alba
153Short eared OwlAsio flammeus
154Indian Scops OwlOtus bakkamoena
155Oriental Scops OwlOtus sunia
156Jungle OwletGlaucidium radiatum
157Spotted OwletAthene brama
158Indian Eagle OwlBubo bubo
159Brown Fish OwlKetupa zeylonenis
160Mottled Wood OwlStrix ocellata
161Brown Wood OwlStrix leptogrammica
162Brown Hawk OwlNinox scutulata
163Jungle NightjarCaprimulgus indicus
164Large tailed NightjarCaprimulgus macrurus
165Indian NightjarCaprimulgus asiaticus
166Savanna NightjarCaprimulgus affinis
167White rumped NeedletailZoonavena sylvatica
168Asian Palm SwiftCypsiurus balasiensis
169Little SwiftApus affinis
170Crested TreeswiftHemiprocne coronata
171Common HoopoeUpupa epops
172Malabar TrogonHarpactes fasciatus
173Indian RollerCoracias benghalensis
174Stork billed KingfisherHalcyon capensis
175White throated KingfisherHalcyon smyrnensis
176Common KingfisherAlcedo atthis
177Pied KingfisherCeryle rudis
178Blue bearded Bee eaterNyctyornis athertoni
179Green Bee eaterMerops orientalis
180Blue tailed Bee eater Merops philippinus
181Chestnut headed Bee eaterMerops leschenaulti
182Indian Grey HornbillOcyceros birostris
183Malabar pied HornbillAnthracoceros coronatus
184Oriental pied HornbillAnthracoceros albirostris
185Brown headed BarbetMegalaima zeylanica
186Lineated BarbetMegalaima lineata
187Coppersmith BarbetMegalaima haemacephala
188Eurasian WryneckJynx torquilla
189Speckled PiculetPicumnus innominatus
190Heart spotted WoodpeckerHemicircus canente
191Rufous WoodpeckerCeleus brachyurus
192Brown capped Pygmy WoodpeckerDencdrocopos nanus
193Fulvous breasted WoodpeckerDendrocopus macei
194Yellow crowned WoodpeckerDendrocopos mahrattensis
195Lesser YellownapePicus chlorolophus
196Greater YellownapePicus flavinucha
197Streak throated WoodpeckerPicus xanthopygaeus
198Black rumped FlamebackDinopium benghalense
199Greater FlamebackChrysocolaptes lucidus
200White naped WoodpeckerChrysocolaptes festivus
201Grey Headed WoodpeckerPicus canus
202Indian PittaPitta brachyura
203Common IoraAegithina tiphia
204Ashy WoodswallowArtamus fuscus
205Large WoodshrikeTephrodornis gularis
206Common WoodshrikeTephrodornis pondicerianus
207Large CuckooshrikeCoracina macei
208Black winged CuckooshrikeCoracina melaschistos
209Black headed CuckooshrikeCoracina melanoptera
210Bar winged Flycatcher ShrikeHemipus picatus
211Rosy MinivetPericrocotus roseus
212Small MinivetPericrocotus cinnamomeus
213Scarlet MinivetPericrocotus flammeus
214Ashy MinivetPericrocotus divaricatus
215Brown ShrikeLanius cristatus
216Bay backed ShrikeLanius vittatus
217Long tailed ShrikeLanius schach
218Greater Racket tailed DrongoDicrurus paradiseus
219Sprangled DrongoDicrurus hottentottus
220Black DrongoDicrurus macrocercus
221Ashy DrongoDicrurus leucophaeus
222White bellied DrongoDicrurus caerulescens
223Bronzed DrongoDicrurus aeneus
224Indian Golden OrioleOriolus oriolus
225Black hooded OrioleOriolus xanthornus
226Rufous TreepieDendrocitta vagabunda
227Grey TreepieDendrocitta formosae
228Jungle CrowCorvus macrorhyncos
229House CrowCorvus splendens
230Great TitParus major
231Indian Yellow TitParus xanthogenys
232Plain MartinRiparia paludicola
233Sand MartinRiparia riparia
234Dusky Craig MartinPtyonoprogne concolor
235Streak throated SwallowHirundo fluvicola
236Wire tailed SwallowHirundo smithii
237Barn SwallowHirundo rustica
238Red rumped SwallowHirundo daurica
239Singing BushlarkMirafra cantillans
240Jerdon’s BushlarkMirafra affinis
241Indian BushlarkMirafra erythroptera
242Rufous tailed LarkAmmomanes phoenicurus
243Greater Short toed LarkCalandrella brachydactyla
244Ashy crowned Sparrow LarkEremopterix grisea
245Oriental SkylarkAlauda gulgula
246Black crested BulbulPycnonotus melanicterus
247Red whiskered BulbulPycnonotus jocosus
248Red vented BulbulPycnonotus cafer
249White browed BulbulPycnonotus luteolus
250Grey breasted PriniaPrinia hodgsonii
251Jungle PriniaPrinia sylvatica
252Ashy PriniaPrinia socialis
253Plain PriniaPrinia inornata
254Rufescent PriniaPrinia rufescens
255Zitting CisticolaCisticola juncidis
256Common TailorbirdOrthotomus sutorius
257Clamorous Reed WarblerAcrocephalus stentoreus
258Blyth’s Reed WarblerAcrocephalus dumetorum
259Booted WarblerIduna caligata
260Common ChiffchaffPhylloscopus collybita
261Hume’s Leaf WarblerPhylloscopus humei
262Greenish Leaf WarblerPhylloscopus trochiloides
263Yellow bellied WarblerAbroscopus superciliaris
264Yellow eyed BabblerChrysomma sinense
265Puff throated BabblerPellorneum ruficeps
266Pin striped Tit BabblerMacronous gularis
267Tawny bellied BabblerDumetia hyperythra
268Indian Scimitar BabblerPomatorhinus horsfieldii
269Jungle BabblerTurdoides striatus
270Brown cheeked FulvettaAlcippe poioicephala
271Oriental White eyeZosterops palpebrosa
272Chestnut bellied NuthatchSitta castanea
273Velvet fronted NuthatchSitta frontalis
274Common Hill MynaGracula relegiosa
275Jungle MynaAcridotheres fuscus
276Common MynaAcridotheres tristis
277Asian pied StarlingSturnus contra
278Chestnut tailed StarlingSturnus malabaricus
279Brahminy StarlingSturnus pagodarum
280Rosy StarlingSturnus roseus
281White throated FantailRhipidura albicollis
282White browed FantailRhipidura aureola
283Asian paradise FlycatcherTerpsiphone paradisi

Reptiles and Amphibians: Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse array of reptiles and amphibians, including snakes, lizards, turtles, and frogs. The sanctuary’s varied habitats, from rocky outcrops to streams and ponds, provide suitable niches for these species.

Reptiles:

  • Indian Rock Python (Python molurus)
  • Indian Cobra (Naja naja)
  • Russell’s Viper (Daboia russelii)
  • Indian Krait (Bungarus caeruleus)
  • Monitor Lizard (Varanus bengalensis)
  • Indian Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)
  • Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris)
  • Indian Chameleon (Chamaeleon zeylanicus)
  • Gecko (Hemidactylus brookii)
  • House Lizard (Hemidactylus platyurus)
  • Common Skink (Mabuya carinata)

Amphibians:

  • Common Toad (Bufo melanostictus)
  • Indian Bullfrog (Rana tigrina)
  • Green Frog (Rana ridibunda)
  • Tree Frog (Rhacophorus maculatus)
  • Cricket Frog (Kaloula pulchra)
  • Indian Microhylid Frog (Microhyla ornata)
  • Indian Bubble Frog (Kaloula borealis)
  • Indian Golden Frog (Hylarana aurantiaca)

The sanctuary’s ecological diversity is a testament to the importance of conservation efforts. The protection of these habitats and the diverse flora and fauna they support is crucial for maintaining the delicate balance of the ecosystem and preserving this natural treasure for generations to come.

Wildlife Sanctuary Status

Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a beacon of conservation, recognized for its remarkable biodiversity and its unwavering commitment to protecting the region’s natural heritage. The sanctuary’s status as a wildlife sanctuary and a Ramsar Site underscores its significance in preserving endangered species, maintaining ecosystem balance, and fostering a thriving natural environment.

Designation as a Tiger Sanctuary in 2007

In 2007, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary received the prestigious designation of a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger, a momentous decision that solidified its status as a crucial habitat for the endangered Bengal tiger. This designation reflected the sanctuary’s recognition as a stronghold for tigers, providing them with the protection and resources they need to thrive.

The designation of Satkosia Gorge as a Tiger Reserve has brought about significant conservation benefits. The establishment of anti-poaching patrols, habitat management initia