Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary
Nestled amidst the verdant landscapes of eastern Odisha, India, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a testament to nature’s enduring power and its remarkable ability to sculpt the land. Carved by the mighty Mahanadi River over millennia, the sanctuary boasts a mesmerizing 22-kilometer stretch of the river, meandering through the rugged terrain of the Eastern Ghats mountains.
The sanctuary’s history is deeply intertwined with its commitment to wildlife conservation. In 2007, Satkosia Gorge was designated as a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger, recognizing its significance as a crucial habitat for the endangered Bengal tiger. This designation solidified the sanctuary’s status as a haven for diverse wildlife, providing protection and fostering a thriving ecosystem.
In 2021, Satkosia Gorge received the prestigious Ramsar Site designation, a testament to its international importance as a wetland habitat. This recognition highlights the sanctuary’s vital role in supporting a myriad of wetland-dependent species and contributing to the delicate balance of the region’s ecosystem.
The sanctuary’s location within Angul and Boudh districts of Odisha adds to its geographical significance. Situated at the convergence of the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats, Satkosia Gorge boasts a diverse topography, with towering cliffs, verdant forests, and meandering rivers. This unique landscape provides a haven for a wide array of flora and fauna, making it a treasure trove of biodiversity.
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a beacon of conservation efforts, a sanctuary where the wild thrives, and a natural wonder that leaves visitors in awe of its beauty. Its rich history, geographical significance, and ecological importance make it a place of immense value, deserving of continued protection and appreciation for generations to come.
A Crossroads of Geological Formations
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary’s geographical significance is deeply rooted in its strategic location at the convergence of two major geological formations: the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats. This unique positioning has resulted in a diverse and awe-inspiring topography that sets the stage for a thriving ecosystem.
The sanctuary’s 22-kilometer stretch of the Mahanadi River, carved through the heart of the Eastern Ghats mountains, is a testament to the relentless forces of nature. The river’s meandering path has shaped the landscape into a tapestry of towering cliffs, verdant forests, and serene stretches of water. These varied habitats provide a haven for a multitude of flora and fauna, creating a rich biodiversity hotspot.
The sanctuary’s location within the Eastern Ghats, a mountain range stretching along the eastern coast of India, adds to its geographical significance. The Eastern Ghats play a crucial role in shaping the region’s climate, influencing rainfall patterns and fostering unique ecological conditions. Satkosia Gorge, nestled within this mountain range, benefits from this interplay of climate and topography, creating a microcosm of diverse ecosystems.
The sanctuary’s proximity to the Deccan Peninsula, a vast plateau covering much of southern India, adds another layer of geographical significance. The Deccan Peninsula’s unique geological history and distinct flora and fauna contribute to the overall biodiversity of the region. Satkosia Gorge, situated at the edge of this peninsular terrain, acts as a transitional zone, showcasing a blend of ecological elements from both the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats.
In essence, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary’s location and geographical significance lie in its position at the crossroads of two major geological formations, creating a unique blend of topography, climate, and biodiversity. This positioning has resulted in a natural wonder that not only enchants visitors with its beauty but also plays a vital role in maintaining the ecological balance of the region.
Geological Features: A Testament to Earth’s History
Satkosia Gorge, a mesmerizing natural wonder carved by the mighty Mahanadi River, stands as a geological masterpiece, showcasing a captivating blend of landscapes and rock formations. Its geological features provide valuable insights into the region’s tectonic history and the processes that have shaped the landscape over millions of years.
Formation and Evolution of the Gorge: A River’s Masterful Carving
The formation of Satkosia Gorge is a testament to the relentless power of the Mahanadi River, which has tirelessly sculpted the landscape over millennia. The river’s flow, combined with the erosional processes of weathering and abrasion, has carved a deep chasm through the ancient rocks, creating the spectacular gorge that we see today.
The gorge’s formation can be attributed to a combination of factors, including:
- Uplift of the Eastern Ghats: The uplift of the Eastern Ghats, a mountain range running parallel to the coast of India, provided the resistant rocks that the Mahanadi River had to carve through.
- Meandering river course: The meandering nature of the Mahanadi River allowed it to erode its path more effectively, creating the deep and sinuous gorge.
- Varied rock formations: The presence of different rock types, each with varying resistance to erosion, has contributed to the gorge’s unique topography and diverse landscapes.
Geological Composition and Rock Formations: A Tapestry of Geological Treasures
Satkosia Gorge’s geological composition is a fascinating blend of rocks, each with its own story to tell. The dominant rock types found in the gorge include granite, gneiss, and quartzite.
- Granite: Granite, an igneous rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma deep within the Earth’s crust, provides the foundation for the gorge’s towering cliffs and rugged terrain. Its hardness and resistance to erosion have made it a crucial component of the gorge’s structure.
- Gneiss: Gneiss, a metamorphic rock formed from the transformation of other rock types under intense heat and pressure, adds to the gorge’s structural complexity. Its layered and contorted appearance reflects the immense forces that have shaped this geological wonder.
- Quartzite: Quartzite, a hard, metamorphic rock formed from sandstone under high temperatures and pressures, contributes to the gorge’s resilience and stability. Its resistance to erosion has helped preserve the gorge’s features over millennia.
Significance of Geological Features: A Window into the Past
The geological features of Satkosia Gorge are not merely scenic wonders; they hold immense scientific significance. The gorge serves as a natural laboratory for geologists and earth scientists, providing valuable insights into the region’s tectonic history and the processes that have shaped the landscape.
- Understanding tectonic movements: The gorge’s formation and the presence of different rock types provide clues about the tectonic movements that have occurred in the region over millions of years.
- Studying geological processes: The gorge’s varied rock formations and erosional features offer opportunities to study geological processes, such as weathering, abrasion, and uplift.
- Preserving geological heritage: The gorge’s geological features represent a valuable piece of the region’s natural heritage, showcasing the enduring power of nature’s sculpting abilities.
Diverse Rock Formations: A Mosaic of Geological Wonders
Beyond the dominant rock types, Satkosia Gorge boasts a diverse array of rock formations, adding to its geological richness. These include:
- Charnockite: Charnockite, a type of granite characterized by green feldspar, adds a unique color palette to the gorge’s landscape.
- Pegmatite: Pegmatite, a coarse-grained igneous rock, occurs in veins and dikes, providing a contrast to the surrounding rocks.
- Laterite: Laterite, a reddish-brown rock formed from weathering under tropical conditions, is found in some parts of the gorge, indicating past climatic conditions.
These diverse rock formations, each with its distinct characteristics and geological history, contribute to the gorge’s captivating geological tapestry.
In essence, Satkosia Gorge stands as a geological masterpiece, a testament to the relentless forces of nature and the enduring processes that have shaped the Earth’s surface. Its geological features, from the towering cliffs of granite to the intricate layers of gneiss, provide valuable insights into the region’s tectonic history and the power of nature’s sculpting abilities. As we admire the gorge’s breathtaking beauty, we are simultaneously witnessing a living laboratory of geological wonders.
Ecological Diversity: A Haven of Thriving Flora and Fauna
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a haven for a diverse array of flora and fauna, a testament to the region’s rich ecological heritage. The sanctuary’s varied habitats, ranging from tropical evergreen forests to open grasslands and rocky outcrops, provide a nurturing environment for a multitude of plant and animal species.
Diverse Habitats: A Tapestry of Ecosystems
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary encompasses a mosaic of diverse habitats, each playing a crucial role in supporting the sanctuary’s rich biodiversity. These habitats include:
- Tropical Evergreen Forests: These lush, verdant forests dominate the sanctuary’s landscape, providing a haven for a wide variety of tree species. Towering trees like Asan, Dhaura, Simili, and Indian thorny bamboo form a dense canopy, sheltering a myriad of plants and animals.
- Open Grasslands: Interspersed within the forests are patches of open grasslands, providing a habitat for a different set of species. These grasslands are crucial grazing grounds for herbivores and offer nesting sites for various bird species.
- Rocky Outcrops: The sanctuary’s rugged terrain is punctuated by rocky outcrops, providing unique microhabitats for a variety of reptiles, amphibians, and small mammals. These rocky formations add to the sanctuary’s visual appeal and ecological diversity.
Flora: A Foundation for Life
The sanctuary’s flora plays a vital role in maintaining the delicate balance of the ecosystem. The dominant plant species, such as Asan, Dhaura, Simili, and Indian thorny bamboo, provide food and shelter for a wide range of wildlife. These trees produce fruits, seeds, and leaves that nourish herbivores, while their dense foliage creates nesting sites and hiding places for birds and other animals.
The sanctuary’s flora also plays a crucial role in soil conservation, preventing erosion and maintaining the stability of the landscape. The roots of trees and shrubs bind the soil together, while their leaves and branches form a protective layer that reduces the impact of rainfall and wind.
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary boasts an impressive array of flora, encompassing over 126 tree species, 98 shrubs, 125 herbs, and 561 climber species.
- Sal (Shorea robusta): The most dominant tree species in the sanctuary, sal trees are found in dense forests. They are an important source of timber and fuelwood.
- Teak (Tectona grandis): Another important tree species, teak trees are also found in dense forests. They are a valuable timber species that is used to make furniture and other wood products.
- Bamboo (Bambusa spp.): Bamboo is a fast-growing grass that is found in a variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands. It is an important source of food and shelter for wildlife.
- Karada (Pterocarpus marsupium): Karada trees are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas. They are a valuable timber species that is used to make furniture and other wood products.
- Dhawra (Cassia fistula): Dhaura trees are found in the sanctuary’s open grasslands. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
- Piasal (Pterocarpus indicus): Piasal trees are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas. They are a valuable timber species that is used to make furniture and other wood products.
- Asan (Terminalia arjuna): Asan trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their medicinal properties.
- Amla (Emblica officinalis): Amla trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of vitamin C.
- Bela (Aegle marmelos): Bela trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their medicinal properties.
- Dhaura (Cassia fistula): Dhaura trees are found in the sanctuary’s open grasslands. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
- Jamu (Syzygium cumini): Jamu trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of vitamin C.
- Kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba): Kadamba trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their beautiful flowers.
- Kanchan (Cassia fistula): Kanchan trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
- Kangara (Terminalia arjuna): Kangara trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their medicinal properties.
- Kasi (Acacia catechu): Kasi trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of tannin.
- Kendu (Diospyros melanoxylon): Kendu trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of paper pulp.
- Kurum (Cassia fistula): Kurum trees are found in the sanctuary’s open grasslands. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
- Kusum (Butea monosperma): Kusum trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their bright orange flowers.
- Mahul (Madhuca longifolia): Mahul trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of fodder and fuelwood.
- Mango (Mangifera indica): Mango trees are found in the sanctuary’s plantations. They are a valuable source of fruit.
- Mundi (Acacia catechu): Mundi trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are a valuable source of tannin.
- Phasi (Cassia fistula): Phasi trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their bright yellow flowers.
- Sidha (Terminalia arjuna): Sidha trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their medicinal properties.
- Simul (Bombax ceiba): Simul trees are found in the sanctuary’s forests. They are known for their beautiful flowers.
The presence of these diverse flora species in Satkosia Wildlife Sanctuary is a testament to the sanctuary’s rich biodiversity and its importance in conserving India’s natural heritage.
Fauna: A Symphony of Life
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary is a haven for a diverse array of fauna, from majestic mammals to vibrant birds and reptiles. The sanctuary’s varied habitats provide suitable niches for a wide range of species, contributing to its reputation as an important wildlife conservation area.
Mammals: The sanctuary is home to a remarkable range of mammals, including tigers, elephants, leopards, sambar, wild boar, and gaur. Tigers, the apex predators, roam the dense forests, while elephants traverse the grasslands and rocky terrain. Leopards, known for their agility and stealth, stalk their prey in the forest undergrowth. Sambar, wild boar, and gaur are among the herbivores that graze in the grasslands and open areas.
List of mammals – Satkosia Wildlife Sanctuary is a haven for a diverse array of wildlife, including both carnivorous and herbivorous species. The sanctuary’s varied habitats, ranging from tropical evergreen forests to open grasslands and rocky outcrops, provide suitable niches for a wide range of animals.
- Tiger: The apex predator of the sanctuary, tigers roam the dense forests, preying on a variety of large mammals.
- Leopard: Known for their agility and stealth, leopards stalk their prey in the forest undergrowth.
- Jungle cat: Smaller than tigers and leopards, jungle cats are found in a variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and rocky areas.
- Civet: These nocturnal mammals are omnivorous, feeding on both fruits and small animals.
- Small Indian mongoose: A common mongoose species, small Indian mongooses play an important role in controlling rodent populations.
- Wolf: Wolves are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas, hunting in packs and preying on medium-sized mammals.
- Jackal: Jackals are smaller than wolves and are often seen scavengering on carcasses left by larger predators.
- Striped hyena: Striped hyenas are nocturnal scavengers, feeding on a variety of dead animals.
- Wild dog: Wild dogs, also known as dholes, are social hunters, working together to chase down and capture prey.
- Elephant: The largest land animal in Asia, elephants are found in herds, traversing the grasslands and rocky terrain of the sanctuary.
- Common langur: These arboreal primates are found in the sanctuary’s forests, feeding on fruits, leaves, and flowers.
- Sloth bear: Sloth bears are omnivorous, feeding on fruits, insects, and small mammals. They are known for their long, shaggy fur and their habit of sleeping in trees.
- Sambar: The largest deer species in India, sambar are found in the sanctuary’s dense forests.
- Chital: Spotted deer, also known as chital, are found in the sanctuary’s grasslands and open areas.
- Chausingha: Four-horned antelope, also known as chausingha, are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas.
- Mouse deer: The smallest deer species in India, mouse deer are found in a variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and rocky areas.
- Barking deer: Barking deer are known for their distinctive barking call, which they use to communicate with each other.
- Wild pig: Wild pigs are found in the sanctuary’s forests and grasslands, foraging for roots, fruits, and insects.
- Gaur (Gayal): Also known as gaurs, gayals are the largest bovine species in Asia. They are found in the sanctuary’s hilly areas, grazing on grasses and leaves.
- Rodents: A variety of rodents are found in the sanctuary, including Malabar giant squirrels, five-striped palm squirrels, common hares, and porcupines.
The presence of these diverse carnivores and herbivores in Satkosia Wildlife Sanctuary is a testament to the sanctuary’s rich biodiversity and its importance in conserving India’s natural heritage.
Birds: The sanctuary’s avifauna is equally impressive, with over 350 species recorded. The sanctuary’s varied habitats provide suitable breeding and feeding grounds for a wide range of birds, from raptors and waterbirds to songbirds and forest dwellers.
|LIST OF DIFFERENT BIRDS|
|Sl No||Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1||Painted Francolin||Francolinus pictus|
|2||Grey Francolin||Francolinus pondiceranius|
|3||Common Quail||Coturnix coturnix|
|4||Rain Quail||Coturnix coromandelica|
|5||King Quail||Coturnix chinensis|
|6||Jungle Bush Quail||Perdicula asiatica|
|7||Painted Bush Quail||Perdicula erythrorhynca|
|8||Red Spurfowl||Galloperdix spadicea|
|9||Painted Spurfowl||Galloperdix lunulata|
|10||Red Junglefowl||Gallus gallus|
|11||Indian Peafowl||Pavo cristatus|
|12||Lesser Whistling Duck||Dendrocygna javanica|
|13||Fulvous Whistling Duck||Dendrocygna bicolor|
|14||Bar headed Goose||Anser Indicus|
|15||Ruddy Shelduck||Tadorna ferruginea|
|16||Cotton Pygmy Goose||Nettapus Coromandelianus|
|18||Falcated Duck||Anas falcata|
|19||Eurasian Wigeon||Anas penelope|
|20||Spotbilled Duck||Anas poecilorhyncha|
|21||Northern Shoveler||Anas Clypeata|
|22||Northern Pintail||Anas acuta|
|24||Common Teal||Anas crecca|
|25||Red crested Pochard||Netta rufina|
|26||Common Pochard||Aythya ferina|
|27||Ferruginous Duck||Aythya nyroca|
|28||Tufted Duck||Aythya fuligula|
|29||Little Grebe||Tachybaptus ruficollis|
|30||Great crested Grebe||Podiceps cristatus|
|31||Painted Stork||Mycteria leucocephala|
|32||Asian Openbill||Anastomus oscitans|
|33||Black Stork||Ciconia nigra|
|34||Woolly necked Stork||Ciconia episcopus|
|35||Black Ibis||Pseudibis papillosa|
|36||Black headed Ibis||Threskiornis melanocephalus|
|37||Striated Heron||Butorides striata|
|38||Black crowned Night Heron||Nycticorax nycticorax|
|39||Indian Pond Heron||Ardeola grayii|
|40||Grey Heron||Ardea cinerea|
|41||Purple Heron||Ardea purpurea|
|42||Cattle Egret||Bubulcus ibis|
|43||Great Egret||Casmerodius albus|
|44||Intermediate Egret||Mesophoyx intermedia|
|45||Little Egret||Egretta garzetta|
|47||Little Cormorant||Phalacrocorax niger|
|48||Indian Cormorant||Phalacrocorax fuscicollis|
|49||Great Cormorant||Phalacrocorax carbo|
|50||Common Kestrel||Falco tinnunculus|
|51||Red necked Falcon||Falco chicquera|
|52||Peregrine Falcon||Falco peregrinus|
|53||Jerdon’s Baza||Aviceda jerdoni|
|54||Black winged Kite||Elanus caeruleus|
|55||Black Kite||Milvus migrans|
|56||Black eared Kite||Milvus lineatus|
|57||Brahminy Kite||Haliastur indus|
|59||Pallas fish Eagle||Haliaeetus leucoryphus|
|60||Black Eagle||Ictinaetus malayensis|
|61||Oriental Honey Buzzard||Pernis ptilorhyncus|
|62||Egyptian Vulture||Neophron percnopterus|
|63||Indian Vulture||Gyps indicus|
|64||Short toed Snake Eagle||Circaetus gallicus|
|65||Crested Serpent Eagle||Spilornis cheela|
|66||Eurasian Marsh Harrier||Circus aeruginosus|
|67||Pied Harrier||Circus melanoleucos|
|68||Pallid Harrier||Circus macrourus|
|69||Crested Goshawk||Accipiter trivirgatus|
|72||Eurasian Sparrowhawk||Accipter nisus|
|73||White eyed Buzzard||Butastur teesa|
|74||Greater Spotted Eagle||Aquila clanga|
|75||Indian Spotted Eagle||Aquila hastata|
|76||Steppe Eagle||Aquila nipalensis|
|77||Bonelli’s Eagle||Aquila fasciata|
|78||Booted Eagle||Hieraaetus pennatus|
|79||Rufous bellied Eagle||Lophotriorchis kienerii|
|80||Changeable Hawk Eagle||Spizaetus cirrhatus|
|81||Small Buttonquail||Turnix sylvaticus|
|82||Yellow legged Buttonquail||Turnix tanki|
|83||Barred Buttonquail||Turnix suscitator|
|84||White breasted Waterhen||Amaurornis phoenicurus|
|85||Brown Crake||Amaurornis akool|
|86||Purple Swamphen||Porphyrio porphyrio|
|87||Common Moorhen||Gallinula chloropus|
|88||Eurasian Coot||Fulica atra|
|89||Indian Thick knee||Burhinus oedicnemus|
|90||Great Thick knee||Esacus recurvirostris|
|91||Pheasant tailed Jacana||Hydrophasianus chirurgus|
|92||Bronze winged Jacana||Metopidius indicus|
|93||Black winged Stilt||Himantopus himantopus|
|94||River Lapwing||Vanellus duvaucelli|
|95||Yellow wattled Lapwing||Vanellus malabaricus|
|96||Red wattled Lapwing||Vanellus indicus|
|97||Pacific Golden Plover||Pluvialis fulva|
|98||Little ringed Plover||Charadrius dubius|
|99||Kentish Plover||Charadrius alexandrinus|
|100||Lesser Sand Plover||Charadrius mongolus|
|101||Greater painted Snipe||Rostratula bengalensis|
|102||Pin tailed Snipe||Gallinago stenura|
|103||Common Snipe||Gallinago gallinago|
|104||Common Redshank||Tringa totanus|
|105||Commmon Greenshank||Tringa nebularia|
|106||Spotted Redshank||Tringa erythropus|
|107||Green Sandpiper||Tringa ochropus|
|108||Wood Sandpiper||Tringa glareola|
|109||Common Sandpiper||Actitis hypoleucos|
|110||Marsh Sandpiper||Tringa stagnatilis|
|111||Little Stint||Calidris minuta|
|112||Temminck’s Stint||Calidris temminckii|
|113||Small Pratincole||Glareola lactea|
|114||Collared Pratincole||Glareola pratincola|
|115||Oriental Pratincole||Glareola maldivarum|
|116||Brown headed Gull||Larus brunnicephalus|
|117||Black headed Gull||Chroicocephalus ridibundus|
|118||River Tern||Sterna aurantica|
|119||Black bellied Tern||Sterna acuticauda|
|120||Whiskered Tern||Chlidonias hybrida|
|121||Little Tern||Sternula albifrons|
|122||Indian Skimmer||Rynchops albicollis|
|123||Common Pigeon||Columba livia|
|124||Green Imperial Pigeon||Ducula aenea|
|125||Oriental Turtle Dove||Streptopelia orientalis|
|126||Eurasian Collared Dove||Streptopelia decaocto|
|127||Red Collared Dove||Streptopelia tranquebarica|
|128||Spotted Dove||Streptopelia chinensis|
|129||Laughing Dove||Streptopelia senegalensis|
|130||Orange breasted Green Pigeon||Treron bicincta|
|131||Pale capped Pigeon||Columba punicea|
|132||Thick billed Green Pigeon||Treron curvirostra|
|133||Yellow footed Green Pigeon||Treron phoenicoptera|
|134||Emerald Dove||Chalcophaps indica|
|135||Vernal hanging Parrot||Loriculus vernalis|
|136||Alexandrine Parakeet||Psittacula eupatria|
|137||Rose ringed Parakeet||Psittacula krameri|
|138||Plum headed Parakeet||Psittacula cyanocephala|
|139||Jacobin Cuckoo||Clamator jacobinus|
|140||Common Hawk Cuckoo||Hierococcyx varius|
|141||Indian Cuckoo||Cuculus micropterus|
|142||Eurasian Cuckoo||Cuculus canorus|
|143||Banded bay Cuckoo||Cacomantis sonneratii|
|144||Grey bellied Cuckoo||Cacomantis passerinus|
|145||Plaintive Cuckoo||Cacomantis merulinius|
|146||Asian Koel||Eudynamys scolopacea|
|147||Green billed Malkoha||Phaenicophaeus tristis|
|148||Blue faced Malkoha||Phaenicophaeus viridirostris|
|149||Sirkeer Malkoha||Phaenicophaeus leshcenaultii|
|150||Greater Coucal||Centropus sinensis|
|151||Lesser Coucal||Centropus bengalnesis|
|152||Barn Owl||Tyto alba|
|153||Short eared Owl||Asio flammeus|
|154||Indian Scops Owl||Otus bakkamoena|
|155||Oriental Scops Owl||Otus sunia|
|156||Jungle Owlet||Glaucidium radiatum|
|157||Spotted Owlet||Athene brama|
|158||Indian Eagle Owl||Bubo bubo|
|159||Brown Fish Owl||Ketupa zeylonenis|
|160||Mottled Wood Owl||Strix ocellata|
|161||Brown Wood Owl||Strix leptogrammica|
|162||Brown Hawk Owl||Ninox scutulata|
|163||Jungle Nightjar||Caprimulgus indicus|
|164||Large tailed Nightjar||Caprimulgus macrurus|
|165||Indian Nightjar||Caprimulgus asiaticus|
|166||Savanna Nightjar||Caprimulgus affinis|
|167||White rumped Needletail||Zoonavena sylvatica|
|168||Asian Palm Swift||Cypsiurus balasiensis|
|169||Little Swift||Apus affinis|
|170||Crested Treeswift||Hemiprocne coronata|
|171||Common Hoopoe||Upupa epops|
|172||Malabar Trogon||Harpactes fasciatus|
|173||Indian Roller||Coracias benghalensis|
|174||Stork billed Kingfisher||Halcyon capensis|
|175||White throated Kingfisher||Halcyon smyrnensis|
|176||Common Kingfisher||Alcedo atthis|
|177||Pied Kingfisher||Ceryle rudis|
|178||Blue bearded Bee eater||Nyctyornis athertoni|
|179||Green Bee eater||Merops orientalis|
|180||Blue tailed Bee eater||Merops philippinus|
|181||Chestnut headed Bee eater||Merops leschenaulti|
|182||Indian Grey Hornbill||Ocyceros birostris|
|183||Malabar pied Hornbill||Anthracoceros coronatus|
|184||Oriental pied Hornbill||Anthracoceros albirostris|
|185||Brown headed Barbet||Megalaima zeylanica|
|186||Lineated Barbet||Megalaima lineata|
|187||Coppersmith Barbet||Megalaima haemacephala|
|188||Eurasian Wryneck||Jynx torquilla|
|189||Speckled Piculet||Picumnus innominatus|
|190||Heart spotted Woodpecker||Hemicircus canente|
|191||Rufous Woodpecker||Celeus brachyurus|
|192||Brown capped Pygmy Woodpecker||Dencdrocopos nanus|
|193||Fulvous breasted Woodpecker||Dendrocopus macei|
|194||Yellow crowned Woodpecker||Dendrocopos mahrattensis|
|195||Lesser Yellownape||Picus chlorolophus|
|196||Greater Yellownape||Picus flavinucha|
|197||Streak throated Woodpecker||Picus xanthopygaeus|
|198||Black rumped Flameback||Dinopium benghalense|
|199||Greater Flameback||Chrysocolaptes lucidus|
|200||White naped Woodpecker||Chrysocolaptes festivus|
|201||Grey Headed Woodpecker||Picus canus|
|202||Indian Pitta||Pitta brachyura|
|203||Common Iora||Aegithina tiphia|
|204||Ashy Woodswallow||Artamus fuscus|
|205||Large Woodshrike||Tephrodornis gularis|
|206||Common Woodshrike||Tephrodornis pondicerianus|
|207||Large Cuckooshrike||Coracina macei|
|208||Black winged Cuckooshrike||Coracina melaschistos|
|209||Black headed Cuckooshrike||Coracina melanoptera|
|210||Bar winged Flycatcher Shrike||Hemipus picatus|
|211||Rosy Minivet||Pericrocotus roseus|
|212||Small Minivet||Pericrocotus cinnamomeus|
|213||Scarlet Minivet||Pericrocotus flammeus|
|214||Ashy Minivet||Pericrocotus divaricatus|
|215||Brown Shrike||Lanius cristatus|
|216||Bay backed Shrike||Lanius vittatus|
|217||Long tailed Shrike||Lanius schach|
|218||Greater Racket tailed Drongo||Dicrurus paradiseus|
|219||Sprangled Drongo||Dicrurus hottentottus|
|220||Black Drongo||Dicrurus macrocercus|
|221||Ashy Drongo||Dicrurus leucophaeus|
|222||White bellied Drongo||Dicrurus caerulescens|
|223||Bronzed Drongo||Dicrurus aeneus|
|224||Indian Golden Oriole||Oriolus oriolus|
|225||Black hooded Oriole||Oriolus xanthornus|
|226||Rufous Treepie||Dendrocitta vagabunda|
|227||Grey Treepie||Dendrocitta formosae|
|228||Jungle Crow||Corvus macrorhyncos|
|229||House Crow||Corvus splendens|
|230||Great Tit||Parus major|
|231||Indian Yellow Tit||Parus xanthogenys|
|232||Plain Martin||Riparia paludicola|
|233||Sand Martin||Riparia riparia|
|234||Dusky Craig Martin||Ptyonoprogne concolor|
|235||Streak throated Swallow||Hirundo fluvicola|
|236||Wire tailed Swallow||Hirundo smithii|
|237||Barn Swallow||Hirundo rustica|
|238||Red rumped Swallow||Hirundo daurica|
|239||Singing Bushlark||Mirafra cantillans|
|240||Jerdon’s Bushlark||Mirafra affinis|
|241||Indian Bushlark||Mirafra erythroptera|
|242||Rufous tailed Lark||Ammomanes phoenicurus|
|243||Greater Short toed Lark||Calandrella brachydactyla|
|244||Ashy crowned Sparrow Lark||Eremopterix grisea|
|245||Oriental Skylark||Alauda gulgula|
|246||Black crested Bulbul||Pycnonotus melanicterus|
|247||Red whiskered Bulbul||Pycnonotus jocosus|
|248||Red vented Bulbul||Pycnonotus cafer|
|249||White browed Bulbul||Pycnonotus luteolus|
|250||Grey breasted Prinia||Prinia hodgsonii|
|251||Jungle Prinia||Prinia sylvatica|
|252||Ashy Prinia||Prinia socialis|
|253||Plain Prinia||Prinia inornata|
|254||Rufescent Prinia||Prinia rufescens|
|255||Zitting Cisticola||Cisticola juncidis|
|256||Common Tailorbird||Orthotomus sutorius|
|257||Clamorous Reed Warbler||Acrocephalus stentoreus|
|258||Blyth’s Reed Warbler||Acrocephalus dumetorum|
|259||Booted Warbler||Iduna caligata|
|260||Common Chiffchaff||Phylloscopus collybita|
|261||Hume’s Leaf Warbler||Phylloscopus humei|
|262||Greenish Leaf Warbler||Phylloscopus trochiloides|
|263||Yellow bellied Warbler||Abroscopus superciliaris|
|264||Yellow eyed Babbler||Chrysomma sinense|
|265||Puff throated Babbler||Pellorneum ruficeps|
|266||Pin striped Tit Babbler||Macronous gularis|
|267||Tawny bellied Babbler||Dumetia hyperythra|
|268||Indian Scimitar Babbler||Pomatorhinus horsfieldii|
|269||Jungle Babbler||Turdoides striatus|
|270||Brown cheeked Fulvetta||Alcippe poioicephala|
|271||Oriental White eye||Zosterops palpebrosa|
|272||Chestnut bellied Nuthatch||Sitta castanea|
|273||Velvet fronted Nuthatch||Sitta frontalis|
|274||Common Hill Myna||Gracula relegiosa|
|275||Jungle Myna||Acridotheres fuscus|
|276||Common Myna||Acridotheres tristis|
|277||Asian pied Starling||Sturnus contra|
|278||Chestnut tailed Starling||Sturnus malabaricus|
|279||Brahminy Starling||Sturnus pagodarum|
|280||Rosy Starling||Sturnus roseus|
|281||White throated Fantail||Rhipidura albicollis|
|282||White browed Fantail||Rhipidura aureola|
|283||Asian paradise Flycatcher||Terpsiphone paradisi|
Reptiles and Amphibians: Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse array of reptiles and amphibians, including snakes, lizards, turtles, and frogs. The sanctuary’s varied habitats, from rocky outcrops to streams and ponds, provide suitable niches for these species.
- Indian Rock Python (Python molurus)
- Indian Cobra (Naja naja)
- Russell’s Viper (Daboia russelii)
- Indian Krait (Bungarus caeruleus)
- Monitor Lizard (Varanus bengalensis)
- Indian Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)
- Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris)
- Indian Chameleon (Chamaeleon zeylanicus)
- Gecko (Hemidactylus brookii)
- House Lizard (Hemidactylus platyurus)
- Common Skink (Mabuya carinata)
- Common Toad (Bufo melanostictus)
- Indian Bullfrog (Rana tigrina)
- Green Frog (Rana ridibunda)
- Tree Frog (Rhacophorus maculatus)
- Cricket Frog (Kaloula pulchra)
- Indian Microhylid Frog (Microhyla ornata)
- Indian Bubble Frog (Kaloula borealis)
- Indian Golden Frog (Hylarana aurantiaca)
The sanctuary’s ecological diversity is a testament to the importance of conservation efforts. The protection of these habitats and the diverse flora and fauna they support is crucial for maintaining the delicate balance of the ecosystem and preserving this natural treasure for generations to come.
Wildlife Sanctuary Status
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a beacon of conservation, recognized for its remarkable biodiversity and its unwavering commitment to protecting the region’s natural heritage. The sanctuary’s status as a wildlife sanctuary and a Ramsar Site underscores its significance in preserving endangered species, maintaining ecosystem balance, and fostering a thriving natural environment.
Designation as a Tiger Sanctuary in 2007
In 2007, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary received the prestigious designation of a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger, a momentous decision that solidified its status as a crucial habitat for the endangered Bengal tiger. This designation reflected the sanctuary’s recognition as a stronghold for tigers, providing them with the protection and resources they need to thrive.
The designation of Satkosia Gorge as a Tiger Reserve has brought about significant conservation benefits. The establishment of anti-poaching patrols, habitat management initiatives, and community engagement programs have played a vital role in protecting tigers and their prey base.
Satkosia Tiger Reserve
Satkosia Tiger Reserve is a magnificent natural wonder located in the heartland of Odisha, India. It encompasses an area of 963.87 sq. km, spread across four districts: Angul, Cuttack, Boudh, and Nayagarh. The reserve boasts a diverse topography, characterized by hilly terrain with moderate to steep slopes and narrow valleys. The elevation within the reserve ranges from 37 meters to 932 meters, with the lowest point being 37 meters at the view bed at Katrang and the highest peak being Sunakhania at 932 meters. The mighty Mahanadi River gracefully traverses the reserve, adding to its scenic charm.
The core area of Satkosia Tiger Reserve, designated as critical tiger habitat, covers 523.61 sq. km, while the buffer or peripheral area spans 440.26 sq. km. This core area provides a safe haven for tigers, allowing them to thrive and maintain a healthy population.
The reserve’s geographical coordinates are 20° 25′ 12″ N to 20° 45′ 36″ N in latitude and 84° 40′ 20″ E to 85° 05′ 24″ E in longitude. These coordinates pinpoint the reserve’s location within Odisha and provide a reference for those seeking to visit or study this natural treasure.
Satkosia Tiger Reserve is not only a haven for tigers but also a home to a diverse array of flora and fauna. The reserve’s varied habitats, including tropical evergreen forests, open grasslands, and rocky outcrops, provide suitable niches for a wide range of species.
The reserve’s ecological significance extends beyond its role in protecting endangered species. It plays a crucial role in maintaining ecosystem balance, providing essential ecosystem services such as water purification, flood control, and climate regulation. These services are vital not only for the reserve’s wildlife but also for the surrounding communities that depend on its natural resources.
Satkosia Tiger Reserve stands as a testament to the power of conservation efforts. Its designation as a Tiger Reserve and a Ramsar Site highlights its global importance in protecting endangered species and preserving critical wetland habitats. The reserve’s success story serves as an inspiration for future conservation endeavors worldwide.
Importance of Protecting Endangered Species and Maintaining Ecosystem Balance
The conservation of Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary extends far beyond the protection of tigers. The sanctuary’s diverse habitats support a rich array of endangered species, including elephants, leopards, sambar, and wild boar. By protecting these species, we ensure the integrity of the ecosystem and the delicate balance of predator and prey populations.
Maintaining ecosystem balance is crucial for the long-term health of the sanctuary. The diverse flora and fauna within the sanctuary play interconnected roles, from pollinators ensuring plant reproduction to herbivores controlling vegetation growth. By safeguarding these species, we protect the intricate web of life that sustains the ecosystem.
Conservation Status: A Balancing Act
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary faces a range of conservation challenges, including habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict. Despite these challenges, ongoing conservation efforts have made significant strides in protecting the sanctuary’s wildlife and habitats.
- Habitat Management: Conservation efforts focus on preserving and restoring the sanctuary’s diverse habitats, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands. This involves controlling invasive species, preventing encroachment, and promoting afforestation.
- Anti-Poaching Measures: Stringent anti-poaching patrols, surveillance systems, and community engagement programs have helped deter poaching and protect endangered species.
- Human-Wildlife Conflict Mitigation: Efforts to minimize human-wildlife conflict include awareness campaigns, crop protection measures, and habitat restoration initiatives to reduce interactions between humans and wild animals.
Recognition as a Ramsar Site: A Global Significance
In 2021, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary received the prestigious designation of a Ramsar Site, an international recognition of its importance as a wetland habitat. This designation highlights the sanctuary’s vital role in supporting a myriad of wetland-dependent species and contributing to the delicate balance of the region’s ecosystem.
The sanctuary’s wetlands, including the Mahanadi River and its associated water bodies, provide essential breeding grounds, feeding grounds, and resting places for a wide range of birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. The recognition as a Ramsar Site underscores the need for international cooperation in protecting these critical habitats.
Ongoing Conservation Efforts: A Collective Responsibility
The conservation of Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary is an ongoing endeavor that requires the collective efforts of conservation organizations, government agencies, local communities, and individuals. By working together, we can ensure that this natural treasure continues to thrive, protecting its biodiversity and preserving its natural beauty for generations to come.
In conclusion, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a testament to the power of conservation and the importance of protecting our natural heritage. Its designation as a Tiger Reserve and a Ramsar Site highlights its global significance, and the ongoing conservation efforts serve as an inspiration for future generations to cherish and safeguard this irreplaceable natural wonder. By fostering a harmonious coexistence between humans and wildlife, we can ensure that Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary continues to flourish as a haven of biodiversity and a symbol of environmental stewardship.
Ecotourism and Visitor Experience: Immerse Yourself in Nature’s Embrace
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary, a captivating realm of natural splendor, invites visitors to embark on an ecotourism adventure, offering a unique blend of immersive experiences and responsible practices that harmonize with the sanctuary’s delicate ecosystem.
Nature-Based Activities: An Exploration of Nature’s Wonders
The sanctuary beckons nature enthusiasts with a plethora of activities that unveil its hidden treasures. Glide along the tranquil waters of the Mahanadi River on a boat ride, soaking in the breathtaking panorama of towering cliffs and lush forests. Embark on nature walks through verdant trails, encountering a symphony of birdsong and the rustling of leaves beneath your feet. For the more adventurous, trekking expeditions offer the thrill of exploring uncharted territories, revealing hidden waterfalls and breathtaking vistas.
Wildlife Encounters: A Glimpse into the Wild
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary presents an extraordinary opportunity to observe majestic wildlife in their natural habitat. Witness the elusive Bengal tiger, the apex predator, prowling through the dense forests. Watch in awe as elephants, gentle giants, traverse the grasslands and rocky terrain. Catch a glimpse of the elusive leopard, its spotted coat blending seamlessly with the dappled sunlight. And marvel at the graceful movements of sambar, wild boar, and gaur as they graze in the open areas.
Importance of Responsible Ecotourism Practices: Treading Lightly on Nature’s Tapestry
As we venture into the sanctuary’s natural realm, it is crucial to adhere to responsible ecotourism practices that minimize our impact on the delicate ecosystem. Observe wildlife from designated viewing areas, avoiding loud noises or sudden movements that might disturb their natural behavior. Refrain from littering or discarding waste, leaving no trace of our presence except our footprints. Respect local customs and traditions, fostering a harmonious coexistence with the communities that call this sanctuary home.
Tourism and Ecotourism: A Symbiosis of Conservation and Experience
The sanctuary’s ecotourism potential lies in its ability to balance visitor experiences with conservation efforts. By promoting responsible ecotourism practices, we can generate revenue for conservation initiatives, ensuring the long-term protection of the sanctuary’s natural heritage. Visitors, in turn, gain a deeper appreciation for the sanctuary’s beauty and the importance of preserving its delicate balance.
Opportunities for Visitors: A Journey of Discovery and Learning
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary offers visitors a transformative experience, a journey of discovery and learning that transcends mere sightseeing. As we navigate through the sanctuary’s diverse landscapes, we gain a deeper understanding of the intricate web of life that sustains this ecosystem. We learn to appreciate the delicate balance between humans and wildlife, fostering a sense of stewardship for the environment.
The sanctuary’s ecotourism initiatives aim to create a lasting impression on visitors, inspiring them to become ambassadors for conservation. Through interactive programs, educational workshops, and community engagement efforts, we can instill a sense of responsibility and empower individuals to contribute to the preservation of this natural treasure.
In essence, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a testament to the harmonious coexistence of nature and ecotourism. By embracing responsible practices and fostering a deep respect for the sanctuary’s delicate balance, we can ensure that future generations continue to marvel at its beauty and witness the thriving biodiversity it so proudly protects.
Conclusion: A Beacon of Conservation in the Heart of Nature’s Splendor
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary, a mesmerizing tapestry of natural wonders, stands as a testament to the enduring power of nature and the transformative impact of conservation efforts. Nestled amidst the rugged terrain of the Eastern Ghats, the sanctuary has carved its place not only as a breathtaking landscape but also as a haven for a diverse array of flora and fauna.
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary: A Natural Wonder and Conservation Success Story
The sanctuary’s geological history, etched in the towering cliffs and meandering rivers, is a testament to Earth’s relentless sculpting forces. Its diverse habitats, from lush forests to open grasslands, provide a nurturing environment for a multitude of plant and animal species. The sanctuary’s designation as a Tiger Reserve and a Ramsar Site highlights its global significance in protecting endangered species and preserving critical wetland habitats.
The sanctuary’s conservation success story is woven into the fabric of its rich biodiversity. The presence of tigers, elephants, leopards, and a myriad of other species is a testament to the sanctuary’s effective management and the unwavering commitment of conservationists. The sanctuary’s ecotourism initiatives, promoting responsible practices and fostering community engagement, further strengthen the sanctuary’s position as a model for conservation excellence.
Significance of Preserving Biodiversity and Maintaining Ecological Balance
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a beacon of hope, demonstrating the immense value of preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecological balance. The sanctuary’s diverse flora and fauna play a crucial role in maintaining the delicate balance of the ecosystem, from pollinating plants to controlling vegetation growth. Protecting these species is essential for ensuring the long-term health of the sanctuary and the well-being of the communities that depend on it.
The sanctuary’s conservation efforts extend beyond the protection of individual species. By safeguarding the sanctuary’s habitats, we ensure the preservation of vital ecosystem services, such as water purification, flood control, and climate regulation. These services are crucial not only for the sanctuary’s wildlife but also for the communities that rely on the sanctuary’s natural resources.
Future Prospects and Challenges for the Sanctuary’s Management
Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary faces an array of challenges, from habitat loss and poaching to human-wildlife conflict. However, the sanctuary’s future holds immense promise. With continued conservation efforts, the sanctuary can continue to thrive as a haven for biodiversity and a source of inspiration for future generations.
The sanctuary’s management must navigate these challenges with a holistic approach, balancing conservation goals with the needs of local communities. By fostering partnerships with communities, promoting sustainable livelihoods, and raising awareness about the importance of conservation, we can create a future where the sanctuary’s natural heritage is cherished and protected for generations to come.
In conclusion, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary stands as a beacon of hope, a testament to the enduring power of nature and the transformative impact of conservation efforts. Its rich biodiversity, breathtaking landscapes, and conservation success stories serve as an inspiration for future generations to embrace responsible stewardship of our planet’s natural treasures. As we continue to protect this sanctuary, we safeguard not only its wildlife and habitats but also the well-being of our communities and the promise of a sustainable future for all.