India’s National Parks: A Haven for Wildlife and Biodiversity

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India is home to a vast and diverse range of flora and fauna, and its national parks play a crucial role in protecting this rich biodiversity. There are currently 106 national parks in India, covering an area of over 44,000 square kilometers. These parks are home to a wide variety of animals, including tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, lions, leopards, bears, wolves, and monkeys. They also support a wide variety of plant species, including forests, grasslands, wetlands, and mangroves.

Biodiversity

The national parks in India are home to a wide variety of endangered species, including the Indian tiger, the Asiatic lion, the Indian elephant, the Bengal rhinoceros, the snow leopard, and the Asiatic wild dog. These parks also play an important role in protecting the habitat of other threatened species, such as the nilgai, the gaur, the sambar deer, and the spotted deer.

Conservation

The national parks in India are managed by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. The main goals of these parks are to protect the natural heritage of India, to promote wildlife conservation, and to provide opportunities for education and recreation.

Tourism

The national parks in India are a popular tourist destination for people from all over the world. Visitors can enjoy a variety of activities in the parks, such as hiking, wildlife viewing, birdwatching, and camping.

Here are the list of all national parks in India:

Embark on a journey through the vibrant wilderness of India with this comprehensive state-wise list of all declared national park in India(bharat):
S.N.NAME OF THE NATIONAL PARKSNAME OF STATE & UNION TERRITORYNUMBER OF NATIONAL PARKSAREA SQ. KM
1Sri Venkateswara Park (1989)Andhra Pradesh31368.88
Papikonda National Park (2008)
Rajiv Gandhi National Park (2005)
2Mouling National Park (1986)Arunachal Pradesh22290.82
Namdapha National Park (1983)
3Dibru-Saikhowa National Park (1999)Assam51977.79
Kaziranga National Park (1974)
Manas National Park (1990)
Nameri National Park (1998)
Orang National Park (1999)
4Valmiki National Park (1989)Bihar1335.65
5Guru Ghasi Das (Sanjay) National Park (1981)Chhattisgarh32899.08
Indravati (Kurtu) National Park (1982)
Kanger Ghati National Park (1982)
6Mollem National Park (1992)Goa1107
7Blackbuck National Park (1976)Gujarat4480.12
Gir Forest National Park (1975)
Marine Gulf of Kutch park (1982)
Vansda National Park (1979)
8Kalesar National Park (2003)Haryana248.25
Sultanpur National Park (1989)
9Great Himalayan National Park (1984)Himachal Pradesh52271.28
Inderkilla National Park (2010)
Kheerganga National Park (2010)
Pin Valley National Park (1987)
Simbalbara National Park (2010)
10Dachigam National Park (1981)Jammu & Kashmir43925
Hemis National Park (1981)
Kishtwar National Park (1981)
Salim Ali National Park (1992)
11Betla National Park (1986)Jharkhand1226.33
12Anshi National Park (1987)Karnataka52795.79
Bandipur National Park (1974)
Bannerghatta National Park (1974)
Kudremukh National Park (1987)
Nagarhole National Park (1988)
13Anamudi Shola National Park (2003)Kerala6558.158
Eravikulam National Park (1978)
Mathikettan National Park (2003)
Pampadum National Park (2003)
Periyar National Park (1982)
Silent Valley National Park (1984)
14Bandhavgarh National Park (1968)Madhya Pradesh93656.36
Kanha National Park (1955)
Madhav National Park (1959)
Mandla Fossils National Park (1983)
Panna National Park (1981)
Pench National Park (1975)
Sanjay National Park (1981)
Satpura National Park (1981)
Van Vihar National Park (1979)
15Chandoli National Park (2004)Maharashtra61273.6
Gugamal National Park (1975)
Negaon National Park (1975)
Pench National Park (1975)
Sanjay Gandhi National Park (1983)
Tadoba National Park (1955)
16Keibul Lamjao National Park (1977)Manipur140
17Balphakram National Park (1985)Meghalaya2267.48
Nokrek National Park (1986)
18Blue Mountains (Phawngpui) National Park (1992)Mizoram2150
Murlen National Park (1991)
19Intanki National Park (1993)Nagaland1202.02
20Bhitarkanika National Park (1988)Odisha2990.7
Simlipal National Park (1980)
21Desert National Park (1992)Rajasthan53947.07
Keoladeo National Park (1981)
Mount Abu National Park
Ranthambore National Park
Sariska Tiger Reserve
22Khangchendzonga ParkSikkim11784
23Guindy National ParkTamil Nadu5307.84
Gulf of Mannar National Park
Indira Gandhi (Annamalai) National Park
Mudumalai National Park
Mukurthi National Park
24Kasu Reddy National ParkTelangana319.62
Mrugavani National Park
Vanasthali
25Clouded Leopard National ParkTripura236.71
Rajbari National Park
26Dudhwa National ParkUttar Pradesh1490
27Corbett National ParkUttarakhand64915.44
Gangotri National Park
Govind National Park
Nanda Devi National Park
Rajaji National Park
Valley Of Flowers National Park
28Buxa National ParkWest Bengal61981.65
Gorumara National Park
Jaldapara National Park
Neora Valley National Park
Singalila National Park
Sundarbans National Park
29Campbell Bay National ParkAndaman and Nicobar Islands91153.94
Galathea National Park
Mahatma National Park
Middle Button National Park
Mount Harriet National Park
North Button National Park
Rani Jhansi National Park
Saddle Peak National Park
South Button National Park
National Park List in India

Table of Contents

Sri Venkateswara National Park  (1989)

Sri Venkateswara National Park, also known as SV National Park, is a national park located in the Tirupati district of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is named after Lord Venkateswara, the presiding deity of Tirumala, who is worshipped at the famous Tirumala Venkateswara Temple situated within the park. Sri Venkateswara National Park is a part of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve (SLBR).

Establishment

Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary was established in 1985 with an area of 525.97 sq kms. Out of this, an area of 353.62 sq kms was declared as Sri Venkateswara National Park on 16-10-1989.

Location and Geography

Sri Venkateswara National Park is located in the Eastern Ghats, spread over the Seshachalam hills of Annamaya district and Tirumala hills of Tirupati district. The elevation varies from 150 to 1,130 m. The terrain is undulating with forest-covered valleys.

Climate and Vegetation

Most of the rainfall is received from the northeast monsoon and a little from the southwest monsoon. The vegetation here is a mix of dry deciduous and moist deciduous types. Average rainfall in the region is 900 mm. The average temperature of the region varies from 12 °C to 44 °C.

Biodiversity and Wildlife

Sri Venkateswara National Park is known for its rich biodiversity, including:

  • Flora: The park’s diverse landscape, ranging from mangrove forests to grasslands and wetlands, supports a variety of plant species, including palm trees, mangroves, and orchids.
  • Fauna: The park is home to a variety of animals, including deer, monkeys, and birds. Notable species include the spotted deer, rhesus macaque, and oriental pied hornbill. The park is also a nesting site for the dugong, an endangered marine mammal.

Conservation Significance

Sri Venkateswara National Park plays a vital role in the conservation of the Eastern Ghats’ biodiversity. The park’s protection of the island’s forests and marine habitats helps to ensure the survival of a number of endangered species.

Tourism and Activities:

Sri Venkateswara National Park is a popular tourist destination, offering a variety of activities for visitors, including:

  • Jeep safaris: Jeep safaris are an excellent way to explore the park’s diverse terrain and spot wildlife.
  • Birdwatching: The park is home to over 100 species of birds, making it a paradise for birdwatchers.
  • Snorkeling and diving: The park’s clear waters and rich marine life make it an ideal location for snorkeling and diving.
  • Camping: Camping amidst the park’s wilderness allows visitors to immerse themselves in the natural surroundings and experience the tranquility of the island.

Papikonda National Park (2008)

Papikonda National Park, established in 2008, is a national park located in the East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is situated on the left and right banks of the Godavari River and encompasses the Papikonda hill range of the Eastern Ghats. With an area of 1,012.86 square kilometers (391.07 square miles), it is the only national park in the geographically vast northern Eastern Ghats. The park is recognized as an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) and is home to a variety of endangered flora and fauna.

Biodiversity and Wildlife

Papikonda National Park boasts a rich diversity of plant and animal life, including:

  • Flora: The park is covered with moist deciduous forests, providing a habitat for a wide range of plant species. Among these are Erythrina suberosa, Lagerstroemia parviflora, and Terminalia tomentosa.
  • Fauna: The park is home to a variety of animals, including tigers, leopards, elephants, and sambar deer. It also serves as a nesting site for endangered species like the Indian gaur and the Indian pangolin.

Conservation Significance

Papikonda National Park plays a crucial role in preserving the biodiversity of the Eastern Ghats. The park’s protection of the region’s forests and wildlife habitats contributes to the survival of numerous endangered species.

Tourism and Activities

Papikonda National Park is a popular tourist destination, offering a variety of activities for visitors, including:

  • Jeep safaris: Jeep safaris provide an excellent way to explore the park’s diverse terrain and spot wildlife.
  • Birdwatching: The park is home to over 200 species of birds, making it a paradise for birdwatchers.
  • Nature trails: The park has several nature trails that lead to waterfalls, viewpoints, and other interesting locations.
  • Camping: Camping amidst the park’s wilderness allows visitors to immerse themselves in the natural surroundings and experience the tranquility of the area.

Rajiv Gandhi National Park (2005)

Rajiv Gandhi National Park, also known as Rameshwaram National Park, is a national park located in Rameswaram of Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Its area is about 2.4 square kilometers (0.93 sq mi) of tropical dry deciduous forest mostly growing on a sandy soil.

Establishment

The area was originally designated as “Rameshwaram National Park” on 19 November 2005. On 26 December 2005, the park’s name was changed to “Rajiv Gandhi National Park.”

Location and Geography

Rajiv Gandhi National Park is situated on the north bank of the Penna River, about 25 kilometers (16 mi) from the town of Rameswaram. The park is surrounded by hills, and the terrain is undulating.

Climate and Vegetation

The park has a tropical dry deciduous climate, with an average annual rainfall of 800 millimeters (31 in). The vegetation of the park consists mainly of dry deciduous trees, such as the palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer), the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), and the Indian rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo).

Biodiversity and Wildlife

Rajiv Gandhi National Park is home to a variety of wildlife, including:

  • Mammals: The park is home to a number of mammals, including the Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca), the Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata), and the Indian rock python (Python molurus molurus).
  • Birds: The park is also home to a variety of birds, including the Indian roller (Coracias benghalensis), the painted spurfowl (Gallus sonneratii), and the Indian grey hornbill (Ocyceros griseus).
  • Reptiles: The park is home to a number of reptiles, including the Indian crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), the Indian cobra (Naja naja), and the Indian rock python.

Conservation Significance

Rajiv Gandhi National Park plays an important role in the conservation of the biodiversity of the region. The park’s protection of the dry deciduous forest habitat helps to ensure the survival of a number of endangered species.

Tourism and Activities

Rajiv Gandhi National Park is not as popular a tourist destination as some of the other national parks in India, but it is still worth visiting for its wildlife and its natural beauty. Some of the activities that visitors can enjoy in the park include:

  • Birdwatching: The park is a great place to go birdwatching, as it is home to a variety of bird species.
  • Jungle safari: Visitors can take a jungle safari through the park in a jeep or on foot.
  • Photography: The park is a beautiful place to take photographs of the wildlife and the scenery.

Mouling National Park (1986)

Mouling National Park is a national park located in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, spread primarily over the Upper Siang district and parts of the West Siang and East Siang district. It was the second national park to be created in the state, after Namdapha National Park in 1972. The Mouling National Park and the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary are located fully or partly within Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve.

Establishment

The Mouling National Park was created in 1986 vide Gazette notification No. FOR/55/Gen/81 dt. 30th Dec. ’86.

Location and Area

The National Park lies in between 28028′ to 28042′ North latitude and 94042′ to 95001′ East longitude covering part of Uppar Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh (Topo sheet No. 78M/16). The Park is surrounded by Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary on the North, East and South, and in the west, the boundary coincides with the bank of Siyom River. The total area of the park is 483 km2 (186 sq mi).

Geography

The national park covers an area of about 483 km² forming the western part of the Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve. The terrain is rugged with an altitudinal range of 750 to 3064 m at the highest point, the Mouling Peak. The Siyom River flows along the western fringes of the park and several small rivers such as the Siring, Krobong, Semong and Subong drain into the Siang river near the eastern boundary of the park. The park is under the administrative control of the Divisional Forest Office located in Jengging and the nearest major towns are Along and Pasighat, 130 km and 185 km from the park.

Biodiversity and Wildlife

Mouling National Park is known for its rich biodiversity, including:

  • Flora: The park’s diverse landscape, ranging from mangrove forests to grasslands and wetlands, supports a variety of plant species, including palm trees, mangroves, and orchids. Notable flora includes Dipterocarpus macrocarpus, Shorea robusta, and Calamus palustris.
  • Fauna: The park is home to a variety of animals, including deer, monkeys, and birds. Notable species include the Indian muntjac, rhesus macaque, and hornbill. The park is also a nesting site for the dugong, an endangered marine mammal. Notable fauna includes takins, snowclouded leopard, golden languor, hornbill, monal scalater, serrow.

Conservation Significance

Mouling National Park plays a vital role in the conservation of the Arunachal Pradesh’s biodiversity. The park’s protection of the island’s forests and marine habitats helps to ensure the survival of a number of endangered species.

Tourism and Activities:

Mouling National Park is a popular tourist destination, offering a variety of activities for visitors, including:

  • Trekking: The park offers several trekking trails, including the Mouling Peak trek, which leads to the highest point in the park.
  • Birdwatching: The park is home to over 100 species of birds, making it a paradise for birdwatchers.
  • Nature walks: Nature walks are offered by the park staff, and provide an opportunity to learn about the park’s flora and fauna.
  • Cultural tourism: The Siang region is home to a number of cultural attractions, including tribal villages and temples.

Namdapha National Park (1983)

Namdapha National Park is a national park and tiger reserve located in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. It was established in 1983 and covers an area of 1,985 km². The park is part of the Eastern Himalayas biodiversity hotspot, and is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna.

Namdapha National Park is one of the most biodiverse regions in the world. It is home to over 1,000 species of plants, 500 species of birds, and 100 species of mammals. Some of the notable animals found in the park include:

  • Tigers
  • Leopards
  • Clouded leopards
  • Snow leopards
  • Red pandas
  • Takin
  • Asian elephants
  • Gaur
  • Mithun
  • Hornbills

Namdapha National Park is also home to a number of tribal villages, including the Mishings, the Tangsas, and the Nocte. Visitors to the park can learn about the traditional culture and lifestyle of the tribes.

Things to do in Namdapha National Park:

  • Safaris: Jeep safaris and elephant safaris are available in the park. This is the best way to see the wildlife of the park, including tigers, leopards, elephants, and gaur.
  • Birdwatching: Namdapha National Park is a birdwatcher’s paradise, with over 500 species of birds recorded in the park. Some of the notable birds to see include hornbills, pheasants, and tragopans.
  • Trekking: There are a number of trekking trails in the park, ranging from easy to challenging. One of the most popular treks is the trek to Dapha Bum, the highest peak in the park.
  • Visit tribal villages: There are a number of tribal villages located within the park. Visitors can learn about the traditional culture and lifestyle of the tribes, and see traditional handicrafts such as cane and bamboo weaving.

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park (1999)

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is a national park located in the districts of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia, Assam, India. It was established in 1999 and covers an area of 340 km². The park is part of the Brahmaputra Valley floodplain, and is home to a variety of flora and fauna.

The park is known for its diverse landscape, which includes grasslands, swamps, and forests. It is also home to a number of rare and endangered species, including the white-winged wood duck, the Bengal florican, and the hispid hare.

Other notable animals found in the park include:

  • Tigers
  • Leopards
  • Elephants
  • Gaur
  • Wild boars
  • Sambar deer
  • Hog deer
  • Swamp deer
  • Hoolock gibbons
  • Capped langurs

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is also home to a number of bird species, including hornbills, pelicans, and storks.

Things to do in Dibru-Saikhowa National Park:

  • Safaris: Jeep safaris and boat safaris are available in the park. This is the best way to see the wildlife of the park, including tigers, leopards, elephants, and gaur.
  • Birdwatching: Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is a birdwatcher’s paradise, with over 400 species of birds recorded in the park. Some of the notable birds to see include hornbills, pelicans, and storks.
  • Visit the Maguri-Motapung Beel: This is a large beel (wetland) located within the park. It is home to a variety of waterfowl, including ducks, geese, and cranes.
  • Visit the Dibrugarh District Museum: This museum houses a collection of artifacts from the region, including sculptures, pottery, and textiles.

Kaziranga National Park (1974)

Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of Assam, India. It is one of the oldest and most well-known national parks in India, and is known for its large population of Indian rhinoceroses.

The park was established in 1974 and covers an area of 430 km². It is located on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River and is home to a variety of flora and fauna, including:

  • Animals: Indian rhinoceros, Indian elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, Asiatic water buffalo, swamp deer, hog deer, sambar deer, gaur, wild boar, fishing cat, leopard, sloth bear, hoolock gibbon, capped langur, golden langur.
  • Birds: Over 450 species of birds have been recorded in Kaziranga National Park, including hornbills, pelicans, storks, ducks, geese, and cranes.
  • Reptiles: Snakes, lizards, and crocodiles.

Kaziranga National Park is a popular tourist destination, and visitors can enjoy a variety of activities, including safaris, birdwatching, and hiking.

The park is also home to a number of tribal villages, and visitors can learn about the traditional culture and lifestyle of the tribes.

Manas National Park (1990)

Manas National Park is a national park, Project Tiger reserve, and an elephant reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it borders the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan. The park is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife such as the Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog. Manas is also famous for its population of the wild water buffalo. Because of its exceptional biodiversity, scenery, and variety of habitats, Manas National Park is a biosphere reserve and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

History

Manas National Park was established in 1990, but it has a much longer history dating back to the 17th century when it was a hunting reserve for the royal families of Assam. In 1928, it was declared a wildlife sanctuary, and in 1973, it was designated as a Project Tiger reserve. In 1985, Manas was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, but its status was later changed to “World Heritage in Danger” due to poaching and political instability in the region. In 1997, the park was reopened to the public, and it has since been working to restore its wildlife populations and protect its unique biodiversity.

Flora and fauna

Manas National Park is one of the most biodiverse regions in the world, with over 2,000 species of plants and 500 species of animals. The park is home to a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, and wetlands, which support a wide range of wildlife.

Some of the notable animals found in Manas National Park include:

The park is also home to a variety of birds, including hornbills, kingfishers, and peacocks.

Activities

Visitors to Manas National Park can enjoy a variety of activities, including:

  • Jeep safaris
  • Elephant safaris
  • Nature walks
  • Birdwatching
  • Fishing
  • Visit to tribal villages

Nameri National Park (1998)

Nameri National Park is a national park located in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District of Assam, India, about 35 km from Tezpur. Nameri is about 9 km from Chariduar, the nearest village.

The park was established in 1998 and covers an area of 200 square kilometers of tropical wet and dry broadleaf forest. It lies on the north bank of the Jia Bhoreli River.

Nameri National Park is home to a variety of wildlife, including:

  • Animals: Tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, elephant, gaur, wild pigs, sambar, barking deer, hispid hare, slow loris, capped langur, dhole, sloth bear, Burmese ferret badger, binturong, white-winged wood duck, hornbills, peafowls, pheasants, and snakes.
  • Plants: Trees such as neem, peepal, banyan, tamarind, and mango, shrubs such as datura, lantana, and Vitex negundo, and grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Dichanthium annulatum, and Sehima nervosum.

Nameri National Park is a popular tourist destination, and visitors can enjoy a variety of activities, including:

  • Jeep safaris
  • Elephant safaris
  • Nature walks
  • Birdwatching
  • Camping

Orang National Park (1999)

Orang National Park is a national park located in the Darrang and Sonitpur districts of Assam, India. It was established in 1999 and covers an area of 78.80 square kilometers.

The park is located on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River and is home to a variety of wildlife, including:

  • Animals: Indian rhinoceros, pygmy hog, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo, sambar deer, hog deer, leopard, sloth bear, and a variety of birds.

Orang National Park is the only home to the Indian rhinoceros on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River. The park is also home to a large population of pygmy hogs, which are one of the rarest mammals in the world.

The park is a popular tourist destination, and visitors can enjoy a variety of activities, including:

  • Jeep safaris
  • Elephant safaris
  • Nature walks
  • Birdwatching

Valmiki National Park (1989)

Valmiki National Park is a national park located in the West Champaran district of Bihar, India. It was established in 1989 and covers an area of 335.64 square kilometers.

The park is located on the north bank of the Gandak River and is home to a variety of wildlife, including:

  • Animals: Royal Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, Indian elephant, sloth bear, gaur, sambar deer, hog deer, spotted deer, chital, nilgai, four-horned antelope, blackbuck, common langur, and a variety of birds.
  • Birds: Hornbills, peacocks, pheasants, partridges, and a variety of other birds.

Valmiki National Park is a popular tourist destination, and visitors can enjoy a variety of activities, including:

  • Jeep safaris
  • Elephant safaris
  • Nature walks
  • Birdwatching
  • Camping

Guru Ghasi Das (Sanjay) National Park (1981)

Guru Ghasidas National Park is a national park located in the Koriya district of Chhattisgarh, India. It was established in 1981 and covers an area of 2,300 square kilometers. The park is a part of the Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserve.

The park is home to a variety of wildlife, including:

  • Animals: Royal Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, Indian elephant, gaur, sambar deer, chital, nilgai, four-horned antelope, wild boar, sloth bear, and a variety of birds.
  • Birds: Hornbills, peacocks, pheasants, partridges, and a variety of other birds.

The park is also home to a number of tribal villages, and visitors can learn about the traditional culture and lifestyle of the tribes.

Things to do in Guru Ghasidas National Park:

  • Safaris: Jeep safaris and boat safaris are available in the park. This is the best way to see the wildlife of the park, including tigers, leopards, elephants, and gaur.
  • Birdwatching: Guru Ghasidas National Park is a birdwatcher’s paradise, with over 400 species of birds recorded in the park. Some of the notable birds to see include hornbills, pelicans, and storks.
  • Visit the tribal villages: The park is home to a number of tribal villages, and visitors can learn about the traditional culture and lifestyle of the tribes.

Indravati (Kurtu) National Park (1982)

Indravati (Kurtu) National Park is a national park located in the Bijapur district of Chhattisgarh, India. It was established in 1982 and covers an area of 1258.37 square kilometers. The park is a part of the Indravati Tiger Reserve.

The park is home to a variety of wildlife, including:

  • Animals: Indian rhinoceros, wild Asian buffalo, gaur, sambar deer, chital, nilgai, four-horned antelope, wild boar, sloth bear, and